Why are we here?

What is the meaning of Life? Are we here to suffer? Do we really have a purpose? What's the point of all of this, if one day you're here and the next you're gone? And not just us, what is the purpose of anything, if everything pass away at the end?

These are such powerful questions that, most likely, every human being that has ever existed pondered those interrogations at some point in their life... and died or continue living without an answer. The irrefutable true is that nobody really has a flipping idea of why we are here, what are we actually doing here. All we have are theories, ideas, believes and feelings, but there is not yet a real, concise and scientific explanation that satisfy everybody and answer the question of why we are here. That is one of the big mysteries in life: we have no idea of why we exist, no tangible proof that demonstrates our reason of existence, we only have theoretical concepts of vague purposes that change from person to person, and yet most people continue living as if there was no tomorrow

I am not pretending to answer in this article such metaphysical, psychological and in many ways deeply religious question, of why are we here, everybody for sure will have somehow their own personal answer, each one of them valid and with a fundamental weight. If you decide to believe that you are here to help others through life and find love, that's fine, but who created others? Who created the idea of helping one another? And why do we need helping? If you decide that you live for a special unique purpose, a "was-meant-to-be" force or reason that will always be right in your mind whichever course of action you take in this physical world, either left or right, that's fine, but what force is this? Where did it originate? And why do you find the need of having a purpose that guide your actions? The reality is that each person has an answer to the question of "what do you think you are doing in here?", but nobody really knows why are we here? Why we actually exist? Why can we ponder that question and why the sun is the way it is and not another? Nobody really knows, but what we can answer, however, is how we got here, and this is what I'll explore in this article. Stretching the latest discoveries of Science, we'll push forward until our knowledge touches the realm of Metaphysics, where I am hoping we should be able to extract tangible 'meta-scientific' explanations of why are we are based on how we got here

Neither do I support Nihilism or Existentialism (or Essentialism), doctrines that sustain that the Universe intrinsically has no meaning. Nobody really knows. A torch has a meaning for us, right? A battery with charge, a couple of wires and a bulb with a filament in the middle. You normally use a torch when there is no light, and you can easily explain the purpose of a torch and how it works to a child. Something that looks kind of simply for us, we humans, falls into the abyss of the absurd when we're trying to explain the same thing... to an ant. Ants are hierarchical insects who organise themselves in colonies, much like we do in cities, and we might argue that they don't have intelligence, but they do indeed possess a high degree of sophistication comparable to humans in many ways. Could it be that? Ants don't have the intelligence to understand how a torch works, while we lack the, let's called it intelligence version 2, intercosmos or uni-gnosis, to comprehend the meaning of the Universe? If ants in the future becomes intelligent beings, able to produce and understand how a torch works, could we in the future acquire that level of uni-gnosis to truly understand why we are here and the ultimate nature of the Universe? 65 million years ago, when the biggest mammal of the planet could fit in the palm of your hand, nobody bet that this small mammal will eventually develop into an intelligence species such as the human kind, able to create torches. Who is not to say that, 65 million years from now, that small ant that you can place on your hand today, will not develop into an intelligence species too?

Perhaps, by finding out how we got here we can determine why we are here, so in this article I strive to find out, first of all, how the hell did we get here. Let's go and navigate through this journey of exploration together. You are allowed to question everything that has ever been taught to you, and challenge every thought that your mind produces, no matter how wild or ridiculous at first it may be... after all, it turns out that not even your mind you can trust

I have divided this journey of exploration into three sections, each one of them covering a different aspect but obviously all of them related. First we will explore the cause of existence of our Sun and the birth of the Universe, then of our Earth and its unique characteristic to support Life, and finally the flourish of the human race and the existence of the most enigmatic structure in the whole Universe: our brains

Section 1, our star the Sun, without it nothing will be possible

  1. The Primeval Atom
  2. The grapefruit fluctuations at quantum level
  3. The inflation period
  4. Floating in the magic of hydrogen
  5. The Helios nebula

Section 2, the perfect position of planet Earth in the Universe, and the chain of random accidents that caused your existence

  1. The kiss of Theia 
  2. Diving in the origins of Water
  3. The spark of Life    (Work in progress)
  4. Jupiter, the Great Benefactor    (Work in progress)
  5. In the wrong side of the Congo

Section 3, the abstract of your thoughts and the illusion of control

  1. Ancient Civilizations, our roots
  2. Language and Mathematics, the building blocks of humankind
  3. Religion and believes, the intangible reality    (Work in progress)
  4. Our brains, the biggest mystery    (Work in progress
  5. Conclusion   (Work in progress)



1. The Primeval Atom - 13.7 billion years ago 

Religion and Science, reason and faith, are not meant to be enemies, rather, they are two wonderful tools that, like fire and water, allow us to digest the wonders of this Universe. It was a man of God, father Georges Lemaitre, who first proposed the Big Bang Theory back in 1927, two years before Edwin Hubble, though all the credit for the expanding Universe discovery has always been assigned to Hubble, partially because Lemaitre published his article in French, and was not well circulated among the Scientific Community at that time. Both men were undoubtedly in search of Why are we here. Lemaitre called the beginning of the Universe the Primeval Atom, and I bet some of his calculations where based on the work of (also not thoroughly recognised by Science at that time, purely because she was a female), the Astronomer Henrietta Leavitt. Absolutely everything that exist on the Universe was first compiled (that not compacted) into the size of an atom. Obviously, the Universe must have existed in a very different state, not matter or space, to be able to achieve such a small size, to condensate all the energy into a zero-size state, and just to be picky and go deeper into this matter, the "Primeval Atom" should be re-branded as the "Primeval Atom No-Size", because more and more we believe that it wasn't an atom what was there at the beginning, it was a particle, a speck with no size... that is a concept hard to grasp, that the Universe started with no size at all. What was around that speck of zero-space then? If we say nothing that actually implies something

Georges Lemaître, Monseigneur Big Bang


The concept of the Primeval Atom means that absolutely everything is connected, all planets, stars , galaxies, and you and me, where once a form of energy coded in the algorithm of the Primeval Atom. Picture yourself laying in the grass, on a lovely summer afternoon, taking shade under a gigantic oak tree. On your hand you happen to have an acorn, the very same seed that fundamentally gives birth to the whole cathedral-like tree that is giving you shade. The oak tree cannot possibly be compacted into an acorn seed, it is purely codified on it. The same could be interpreted for the Primaeval Atom, it wasn't a compact/compressed state of the Universe, it was a codified version of it. This is utterly incomprehensible and impossible to fit on our imagination, just try to conceive all this space, matter and energy into an atom with no space at all

This is fascinating, and personally to me it presents the following questions:

  • If the Primeval Atom was the beginning of everything, then everything must have an end, there is no concept of infinite. What happens is that we are too small to see the end, but there would be an end, just like there was a beginning. Everything dies, even stars and galaxies, the Principle of Entropy dictates that. So, how will the Universe die? And what would happen after it dies? This is a journey of a one-way ticket only, the Universe and everything within it is one-event, just like when you throw a glass of water into the air, and the droplets of H2O start going all over the place but only in the direction where you threw the water too, the arrow of time is unidirectional, the droplets cannot go back, as they subject to the primeval force you employed when you threw them from the glass. Why are we here is only a temporarily question and, quite frankly, a total waste of time sometimes to ask that, given the fact that, at some point in the future, nothing will be here. If there was a beginning, that implies that there must be an end or conclusion. We are not eternal, nothing is

  • How long was the Primeval Atom in that stage of codified information before it kicked the Big Bang reaction? Was it really energy what the Primeval Atom was composed of? We all know now that E=mc2 allows the matter to be exchanged with energy, and vice versa, therefore maybe this other formula is just as famous as Einstein one's in another plater on the other side of the galaxy: m =E/c2  This is why a tomato (matter) is nothing but the expression of the light of the Sun (energy). The tomato has the ability to transform energy into matter, thus to live. For this transformation to happens a medium needs to exists (rain and earth, in the case of the tomato). Analogically speaking, for the energy to be transformed into matter, a medium (space-time on this occasion) must exist. Therefore, could it have been the insufflation of space and time into the Universe the reason that causes its expansion/explosion from this single point of singularity?

  • What was around the Primeval Atom? Maybe more filaments of energy, all twisted together and somehow linked to the Primeval Atom. Science call the state of the Primeval Atom and its surrounds a "Singularity", basically a word to say that they have no idea of what is going on in there, no Laws being created, no Physics being defined, etc...but this is not quite correct: everything was already coded into the Primeval Atom, the Laws where there otherwise they would not have been created, just like everything single leaf and brunch of an oak is already coded inside the acorn seed

  • What caused the Primeval Atom to ignite? to expand? The only thing that seems to be missing on every singularity described by Science is the 1:1 composition of space-and-time that we perceive as our reality. Then again I ask, could that be the insufflation of space what caused the Big Bang? Expanding energy and allowing matter to be created as a consequence? And the time being a by-product of this insufflation? And another point to consider: if we argue that the matter is created from energy, and that the point of the Primeval Atom was pure energy.... when it exploded/expanded/de-coded, why all energy has not been converted into matter in that chain reaction? Why do we live in a Universe where THERE is energy and also THERE is matter? Could it has been the "singularity" of the Big Bang point something totally different from energy and matter, and those former two (together with space and time) the consequence of the initial explosion?

  • When we think of a Black Hole we can reflect on that and imagine how the Big Band would have look like it: an unmensurable amount of matter with no space. Black Holes have the capability of remove energy from the atoms itself, the energy that exists on the empty space within the atoms, subtract it and convert it into the gravity force that powers the Black Hole. They are indeed atoms catalysers and also they have zero-size (or have don't have a size, whichever way you want to say it). The 'event horizon' is where the light stops working and its atoms (photons) fell apart subtracted by the gravity force of the Black Hole, but if you continue further into the Black Hole that energy gets compacted into zero-space. Yet, black holes do have a mass, and a measurable length, therefore could they indeed have a size inside them? Could the Primeval Atom have being nothing but a Black Hole going ballistics?
  • We can detect black holes.....okay we cannot see them but we can indeed "feel" their presence with instruments, that means that something is escaping the black holes allowing us to detect them....gravity? could gravity actually be faster than light?
  • How can we measure time in million and billion of years when, during this time, the Earth wasn't around to compute in a measurable manner the pass of time? If time is bound by gravity, and the first second even was created during the Big Bang, which gravity must have been inconceivable, then could it be that time was really speeding up at first, and what we perceive now as an expansion of the Universe is nothing but the slowness of time?

  • We know that Black Holes are form by the collapse of massive stars, which during their shiny lives were rotating, therefore black holes have inherited the momentum of theirs ancestors stars and they do indeed rotate too, creating a magnetic field which allow us to actually detect the Black Hole, because it is this field the one that we see interacting with matter. If the Primeval Atom could be interpret as a quasy-black-hole, was it rotating? If it was, where is the rotating-momentum of the initial expansion? Do all galaxies rotate clockwise or anti-clockwise? Is there a rotation momentum inherited in every particle of the Universe? Could it be that we perceive this rotation momentum as time, as the arrow of time?

Note that this picture below is actually incorrect, the expansion happened on a tridimensional scale, not in a 2D representation as the picture displays... if we happens to live on a 3D universe, why cannot we perceive pictures and data on a 3D scale too? Imagine the events of the picture below but in 3D... hard to get all the processes in your head ah? Is it our brain hard-coded to visualise data in 2D mostly? It seems 3D analysis doesn't come as natural

Time since Big Bang

Credit: https://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/topics_bigbang_timeline.html


A human being (a person) is created from sperm and egg, and a massive Oak tree comes from a single Acorn, so we see examples (the same pattern all over the place) of code complied into small things (like the Primeval Atom) that then later on become more complex systems (like the Universe). If we develop this line of thought and observation, we can see that the oak generates thousands of acorns, each one of them can potentially create more oaks. Humans generates other humans, which in turn generates other humans. This escalated process of creation feeds on the environment: Suns creates other suns, which energy feeds the oaks, which acorns feeds the humans. It seems the Primeval Atom was the start of a series of fireworks, with each atom bound to explode into a further fireworks, that fed on a loop and communicate to the others. Isn't this how chain-reaction radioactivity and molecular chemistry works?

A billionth of a second after the Big Bang, the Universe inflated probably to the size of the Solar System. It was just pure energy but no light, apparently in a plasma-liquid state perfectly harmonious but with billions of degrees of temperature, yet no heat because there was no space to perceive it. Particles were moving so fast in this "primordial homogeneous soup" that they could not assemble into any form (perhaps there were no particles at all, hence they couldn't assemble). Then matter was created... and its anti-matter too! Then both annihilated each other (releasing yet even more energy), but it just happens that during this annihilation process there was slightly more matter than antimatter, why is that? This is what is called the Baryon Asymmetry, where you find a lot more electrons with negative charge than electrons (orbiting a nucleus) with positive charge. As yet, Science does not have a clue of why this happened, why the Universe is defined the way it is? Was there any kind of intelligent design process, at the very beginning, that favoured the mater over antimatter? Like some experts in Astrophysics would say: these question really matter

Another physical event that can draw your curiosity into is the Breit-Wheeler process, where pure light can be transformed into matter. This has not been detected yet by Science, because in order to do these experiments a incredibly insane level of energy is needed, but there are strong evidence that it may be possible, but I guess this may not be related to the creating of matter after the Big Bang, because the photons did not even existed yet.... right?

The geometrically harmonious Universe that we live on must have existed in this coded version of its origins. Given the fact of the chaotic disturbances, explosions and up and downs of the Universe' matter after the Big Bang, and given the fact too that geometry is beautifully preserved everywhere (a spiral galaxy is the same here than half an Universe away), that kind of Universal Geometry must have existed right at the Big Bang state. Did the primaeval atom has an specific shape? Did it have any sort of Gaussian Curvature right from the beginning? I'm losing my marbles with this thought, yet, could its shape had been that of a dodecahedron? That will imply that numbers (the face numbers) already existed in the core heart of the Universe at its beginning. It cannot be otherwise, else.. where do numbers and maths come from? Music and Maths at once? Because if you think it carefully, a dodecahedron is nothing but a mathematically representation of music in a geometric shape. Could a dodecahedron had been the ultimate shape of space where an infinitesimal primaeval atom resided? And if of the 12 faces of a dodecahedron, we add another dodecahedron resulting on a shape of 13 dodecahedron, and on that shape we add yet more dodecahedrons... would the rate of expansion of the Universe be the rate of dodecahedron expansion? Any process that begins requires an impulse... where was it? How many dodecahedrons fit around a single dodecahedron? And why am I thinking that the Primeval Atom had the shape of a dodecahedron? I'm by no means the first one, Leonardo da Vinci painted dodecahedrons to illustrate a book called "The Divine Proportion", he even painted on the book a torus-shape, and one of the considered geometries of the Universe is a three-torus shape

Physics know very well that there are different states of matter, apart from the 3 classics taught in schools (solid, gas and liquid states), we also have plasma and a variety of states in between those four. In extreme circumstances, we need to account for a few more states:

  • Under extreme cold = Bose-Einstein condensate
  • Under extreme density = neutron-degenerate matter
  • Under extreme high energy = quark-gluon plasma

Could the singularity of the Big Bang be accounted for as a new state of matter? Just like Black Holes nowadays should do, where the extreme gravity, density, high energy and heat generates a brand new state of matter. Let's do a funny experiment and take the length of space of a meter, with a photon of light bouncing up and down the length of the meter, then throw that meter ruler into a black hole...the speed of light Mr Einstein said is constant, right? As always he's absolutely right so at first we should see the photon of light moving along the length of the meter at the same constant speed. Approaching the black hole, the enormous gravitational force will stretch the meter, the actual length of space, and the photon of light will take longer to move across the same distance... is it time stopping then?

And where is the edge of the Universe? All the evidence points to a Big Bang, the expansion of the Cosmos indicates there was a beginning. There must be an area in space where the Universe ends, where all the atoms cannot longer expand, where the space is being created as the atoms expand into the emptiness of the nothing, where is it? Where is that place, that ultimate frontier? What laws of physics can be applied to the very edge of the Infinite? Could it be that space is created at the same time as the atoms expand? We are indeed pretty, pretty much insignificant..... all the Cosmos has been expanding for the last 14 billions years and for half of that time we lived in an area of the Universe undisturbed by the expansion, the Solar System has evolved, just like our galaxy and our observable Universe in a quiet area, is all the Cosmos like that?

Leptogenesis tries to explain why there is something instead of nothing, why we live on an universe full of matter when the Big Bang and Einstein predicts that there should equal amount of matter and antimatter formed after the creation. I don't believe the Higgs Field provides mass for all particles in the Universe, because why doesn't it do it (according to Science, of course) for the heavy right-handed neutrinos?

In summary, the Big Bang is an event that challenges our conception of continuity. Yes, we know that we all have to die some day, but we have the conception -and hoping- that everything (our kids, etc) will continue living after that, after our passing. The Big Bang shows a beginning, which can potentially implies an end, and therefore a discontinuity that make all existence fall into the absurd when we consider deeply that at some point everything will end, what's the point of it all? The Big Bang occurrence, which scientists know it is still happening today in the form of Universe expansion and the left overs of CMB -Cosmic Microwave Background radiation-, has the signature of its existence in every single thing that you see, feel and experience, like a spirit that is embedded into everything: all you see started from small, and gradually acquire matter, substance and thought as time progresses. Understanding the Big Bang event and its processes is nothing but reverse engineering our Universe... with everything on it including us. That is the only event known that you can study and for which everything around you was also part of it.



Still no explanation for Matter/Antimatter imbalance https://crev.info/2019/03/still-no-explanation-for-matter-antimatter-imbalance/ 

Georges Lemaitre, el cura católico que primero habló de la teoría del Big Bang https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-36469530

The matter-antimatter asymmetry problem https://home.cern/science/physics/matter-antimatter-asymmetry-problem 

George Lemaitre, The Scientist https://fys.kuleuven.be/ster/meetings/lemaitre/lemaitre-luminet.pdf 

The Tangled History of Big Bang Science http://nautil.us/blog/the-tangled-history-of-big-bang-science

The Life and Discoveries of Astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt https://www.thoughtco.com/astronomer-henrietta-leavitt-4160258

Why is there more matter than antimatter? https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-is-there-more-matter-than-antimatter/

The Big Bang Theory: How the Universe began https://www.livescience.com/65700-big-bang-theory.html

The Electromagnetic Spectrum https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/toolbox/emspectrum1.html

Rotation Black Hole https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotating_black_hole

Physicists Detect Strongest Evidence Yet of Matter Generated by Collisions of Light https://www.sciencealert.com/physicists-claim-they-ve-finally-observed-matter-being-made-out-of-colliding-light

Primeval Atom https://briankoberlein.com/2014/03/24/primeval-atom/

What is the Geometry of the Universe? https://www.quantamagazine.org/what-is-the-geometry-of-the-universe-20200316/

Quantum Fluctuations may kill Big Bang Evangelism https://answersingenesis.org/big-bang/quantum-fluctuations-may-kill-big-bang-evangelism/

A mathematical proof that the Universe could have formed spontaneously from nothing https://medium.com/the-physics-arxiv-blog/a-mathematical-proof-that-the-universe-could-have-formed-spontaneously-from-nothing-ed7ed0f304a3



2. The grapefruit fluctuations at quantum level - 13.7 billion years ago minus 0.0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 seconds 

Apparently, this is as far as Science can go, before this time all goes into the unknown. The Plank Time (10 to the power of minus 43, in other words, 42 zeros and a one) is the moment at which Science encounters the so called Plank Wall, a circumstance/situation beyond which the laws of physics (as we know them) disintegrate and cannot pass the wall, therefore we are completely unable to explain what was going on beyond that point. Nothing make sense passing the frontier of the Plank Wall, just as nothing makes sense when we cross the Event Horizon of a black hole (at least, not in the sense lucubrated by the concepts of our mammal cortex). After the Plank Wall and beyond the Event Horizon we find the same thing: singularity, in other words, a situation where all of the major 4 forces in nature that we know (and obviously their formulas) are useless at explaining us what's happening. These powerful well-known 4 forces are:

  • Gravity, discovered by Newton, and yeah, fine-tuned by Einstein through Relativity, where he merges acceleration + gravity through his Field Equations. Nowadays scientists are beginning to believe more and more that Gravity is not a force, but instead is the effect of time-space wrapped by the presence of mass; I guess I don't know enough of physics to debate that argument, but surely when you are falling into a black hole, it is the mass of the object the one that is applying a force to you, maybe Gravity should be be labelled as a force, but the Force of Attraction by Mass (FAM) should be? Also, the tidal waves and the amphidromic points and explained due to the effect of gravity, so surely it is a force, right?
  • Electromagnetic Radiation, EMR for short, defined by Scottish scientist James Clerk Maxwell back in 1865 (built on the genius of Michael Faraday). The force of Electromagnetism holds the electrons around the atomic nucleolus, so if we extrapolate this force to the HUGE, this will be like gravity as the planets (electrons) are held against the nucleus (the sun) of an atom, a solar system
  • Strong Nuclear Force ;in the world (or shall we use universe by itself) of Quantum Mechanics this force is responsible of holding the nucleus of an atom together, representing 98% of the mass of an atom, as it is holding the protons and the neutrons together
  • Weak Nuclear Force ;wait a minute.... strong and weak nuclear forces? separated? why not strong and weak gravitational forces too? This weak nuclear force exist in the atom, and it seems it converts Neutrons and/or Protons into Positrons which are nothing but Electrons with a positive charge; this process is called radioactive decay, which to me sound similar to the matter-antimatter annihilation. Electro-weak force is another force that merges electromagnetism and the weak forces, cool ah?

Gravity is so weak in the sub-atomic world that is literally ignore by quantum physics, why is that? All scientist suspect and dream of unifying all these forces together and achieve in that way an harmonious and unified explanation of the Universe, a compelling Standard Model that will explain everything from all angles. Good luck with that guys and gals! They are indeed making progress when they detected the Bosson particle back in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider, as expected by the Standard Model predictions, but just remember to have patience guys and gals, our current human brains (at least the ordinary ones like me) can take up to nine bits of information at most, for example, if I was to tell you to look to this string of 12 characters only for 3 seconds and then try to memorise it: (FBIFTBBCUSSR), that will be very hard, but if I chop the info into 4 bits of information only (FBI - FT - BBC - USSR) you surely will memorise it much quicker. Hopefully, in a few centuries from now, when our cortex evolve even more (of course, as long as the human race still survives) we shall be able to embrace naturally complex mathematical formulas, more bits of information and adapt simple solutions to the Cosmos riddle that at present we can only digest using computational power (which is all well and good, but unfortunately lacks the meaning of interpretation of data, that we humans are so good at)

Now, coming back to the 4 fantastic forces, consider other significant aspects of the Universe: the areas where these forces do take place and manifest:

  • Time
  • Space
  • Dimensions

Yeah, time and space create Dimensions, and you might argue that we don't need to include Dimensions as a separated entity, but apparently (mathematically) they have proved the existence of dimensions without time or space involved into them. For decades scientists have been trying to "create" a Common Theory, the above mention Standard Model, a all-in-one mathematical description that could merge these forces into one... precisely what happened at the Big Bang, where all these forces where compiled/coded into a single point of infinite density. Given the fact that we are in this Universe which is expanding from a single point in the past, something or someone must have compacted/compiled them before, who or what was that? What caused the Big Bang? How long was it there before it exploded? I guess not long at all, otherwise the heat of that singularity will have disintegrated/vaporised everything

I love this well explanatory video from professor Brian P. Schmidt (50' long but worth every minute), where he gives a nice introduction to Dark Matter (slows the expansion) and Dark Energy (accelerates the expansion). It makes you wonder at the end what will win? Dark Energy or Dark Matter? in any case... the future looks Dark

The accelerating Universe: Nobel Laureate Brian Schmidt


  • How the four fundamental forces separated? What supreme force could have possible merge all of them together? As far as we know it, a Black Hole seems to be the only entity capable of absorbing matter, its energy and presumably the forces associated with the engulfed matter. If space is being absorbed by a black hole, we shall assume that time is absorbed too! Could a massive unique black hole being the origin of the Universe?
  • So we are basically made of random stuff! If we assume that the tiny quantum fluctuations was the ultimate cause that our galaxy is the way it is and not a cloud of particles unable to be formed by the pull of gravity (dark matter?), then absolutely everything that happens around us is pure random, just like when you let go a glass of wine out of the table, it breaks and spill the wine totally at random, just like that the galaxies seems to have been arranged in our Universe
  • The Electron, discovered in 1896, is by far the more peculiar 'particle' that we have observed. Since then, scientists have observed a zoo of particles, more than 80 and still counting! They are going crazy smashing particles against one another and cataloguing the debris of the collision. Are they wasting their time? First of all, does any of the particles that exist nowadays in the Universe has even the most remote similarity (not to mention the temperature) of those daddies particles that were at the beginning and shortly after the creation of the Universe? If I decide to smash 2 cars together, will I expect to find "mini-cars" in the debris that is generated after the mighty collision? There must be another way of doing things, but then again... what the hell do I know?
  • Why there is nothing that goes faster than the speed of light? The medium to which the light run expands faster, right?

The new Kyper-Kamiokande observatory (Hyper-K) might shed some light into the particles universe in the near future, once it is operational, by studying the behaviour of neutrinos, one of the most fascinating particles to my humble opinion, also called ghost particles because they weight almost nothing and have no charge (hence the name neutro, neutrinos). If they are form as a by-product of fusion reaction they might not be old enough to have existed during the Big Bang epoch, it might have taken a long time for the first fusion reaction to start, the first light to be emitted, and hence the first neutrinos to be broadcasted around space. Why do scientists believe, then, that neutrinos may hold the key as to why there is matter on this Universe, when they were not an orchestrator in the Big Bang phenomena, or were they?

Up until now you might argue that everything is kind of confusing but that is pretty much normal while an investigation is still in progress. The creation of the Universe and all that stuff, you can actually explain it all very easily to a four-year old saying something like this: listen my dear kid, the Universe started as a birthday balloon, and all that we see are the bits interacting with one another. This explanation would be pretty much what it is, ruling out the presence of any fantasy or magic in the Universe whatsoever: we are what we were before. If it wasn't, of course, for the existence of a scientist called Vera Rubin, to my opinion the Maker of Dreams, who first detected dark matter back on the 1970s and proof that there is more on the Universe that we can see or detect. We live on a magical Universe full of dark matter. What the hell is dark matter? It should be called "Transparent Matter" as Dr Rebeca Gonzalez Suarez points out, because it doesn't interact much light or normal matter, could it be a distortion of the gravity force at a huge scale? Could it amount for those gazillions of gigantic primordial black holes that we don't see but yet have an enormous gravitational influence around them, making galaxies heavier?

In particular, the particles that we are made of can exist in both a state of mater and of energy, that's why E=mc2 works I think. Could they also exist on a different state, that of dark matter?



Of Particular Significance, Matt Strassler https://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physics-basics/the-known-forces-of-nature/ 

Fundamental Interaction https://www.britannica.com/science/fundamental-interaction  

How far is the edge of the Universe from the farthest galaxy? https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/ 

Heisenberg uncertainty principle https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/quantum-physics/quantum-numbers-and-orbitals/

Common Interpretation of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is proved false https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ 

What is a Neutrino and why do they matter? https://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/what-is-a-neutrino-and-why-should-anyone-but-a-particle-physicist-care

How Vera Rubin confirmed dark matter https://astronomy.com/news/2016/10/vera-rubin

That time I tried to discuss science with shoppers http://soapboxscience.org/2019/04/18/that-time-i-tried-to-discuss-science-with-shoppers-meet-rebeca-gonzalez-suarez/

Roger Penrose, una mente singular para investigar los agujeros negros https://www.elmundo.es/ciencia-y-salud/ciencia/2020/10/10/5f802a39fdddff7e128b45c8.html

El universo puede contener millones de agujeros negros primordiales hechos de materia oscura https://elpais.com/ciencia/2020-10-08/el-universo-puede-contener-millones-de-agujeros-negros-de-materia-oscura.html

How We Know Gravity is Not (Just) a Force https://www.universetoday.com/108740/how-we-know-gravity-is-not-just-a-force/



3. The inflation period - 13.7 billion years ago minus 0.000000000000000000000000000000001 seconds

This is it, this is the Universe into motion: whatever you thought in the past determines your future, we are the present reactions of our past, just like the future will be of our present. In the same way, how the Universe was "compacted" in its origins has determined the way it is expanding now, the filaments over which the galaxies have blossom into existence. Apparently the "inflation" period (dodecahedron expansion?) started 10 minus 32 seconds after the creation of the Universe, after the first injection of space into the Universe, if I'm allow to say that, otherwise (if space is not created at the time of inflation), was space always there? When does space actually come into existence? The inflation allowed for symmetry to exist

Do not confuse inflation vs expansion, they are very different things. We may argue that the semantic of "Big Bang" is a wrong, a very wrong concept, as it kind of implies by the linguistics of the word 'bang' that there was some sort of explosion with light and everything. In reality, what it could have happened is an "inflation", an uniform and unilateral expansion of space-time equally in all directions and in complete dark environment that was elastically created as the inflation developed. That explains why the CBM (Cosmic Background Microwave Radiation) is uniformly distributed no matter where you're in the Universe. This can also explains why the Higgs Boson causes the mass of your body to be exactly the same whether you are on Earth or on the other side of the Galaxy, this is because (apparently)  the Higgs Boson is uniformly distributed and interacts with particles, hence given them mass, so your body weights the same here in planet Earth as well as when you are on planet GH6734 in the Andromeda Galaxy, as long as planet GH6734 has the same mass and therefore gravity that Earth applies over your body. This means that there is a common distribution of the same amount of Higgs Boson across the Universe, as it was a X-Y-Z canvas where each squares represents the same amount of the Boson. Where does this uniform flat-universe of particles originated? Yeah, you got it, from the inflation, that by definition "inflates" something in an harmonious, equilibrium and symmetry manner in all directions

But... wait a minute. Wasn't the Big Bang supposed to be violent? An ultra-dense expression of erratic particles that all of the sudden are free from the cooked pressure of a singularity? How is it possible that a smooth, uniform and flat ordered army of particles rose from that pandemonium? Obviously, there are a lot more of things that we don't understand about the Big Bang that we do understand. I love the You Tube Channel "Space Time", with Matt O'Dowd; many videos like this one are worth watching more than once: 

How Cosmic Inflation Flattened the Universe


  • Inflation... I believe this does not happen naturally. Unless is human induced, what kind of thing can you see in the Universe that "inflates" distributing evenly across its surface expansion? Normally all is very chaotic, and depending of the amount of fluctuations particles at quantum level, the expansion favours the distribution of stuff towards one way or another. Could a sort of lab experiment have caused this, inflation of a compressed energy point? Okay, let's stop blaming the aliens for everything and let's figure out how else could this has happened. Was entropy created right after the inflation?
  • What stopped the inflation? Did the Universe run out of the initial energy? Why did it "mutated" from inflation to expansion, was it because of the creation of entropy? Looks like the inflation was the 'release' of stuff that previously was compacted, and once it was free, it inflated first and then expanded after, allowing us to observe the expansion of the Cosmos that we see today
  • So we can argue that the 4 fundamental forces were actually created once the inflation period finished, during the inflation period there were no atoms that could interact with the forces, and all there was were quarks and particles separating their plank distances from one another as the space was introduced; "separating their distances" we may say by the primitive dark energy that inhabits the empty space in between the particles
  • Could it be that all of this happened at once? There was no inflation, but just a cubic or dodecahedron shape of energy that all of the sudden (half of it or so) converted into matter, and then after this conversion/transformation it expanded? This transmutation of empty space into particles works well (right?) with the dark energy principle, as if the dark energy becomes white energy, a bit unstable and pop these particles into existence. And why so many different particles? When the inflation was happening, those early particles must have been smashing against one another, hence creating the zoo of particles the LHC detects nowadays
  • The Cosmic Inflation was happening at many times the speed of light. Was it because the particles where pushing one another and growing larger (proactive inflation) or was it because the space in between the particles separating them (reactive inflation)? Obviously, the force of inflation (inflaforce?) was much stronger than any other known force, there was no black holes during this period, neither stars formation of course
  • Unbelievable short, the Cosmic Inflation lasted a picosecond, a fraction of a second

Cosmic Background radiation (CBM) was released when the baby Universe was about 370,000 years old only, that's the origin of the 1st light ever. Was it during the inflation period that infinite symmetry was created? If so, how can you explain the Spontaneous Breaking of Symmetry? I find this video from Derek Muller (Veritasium) absolutely fascinating:


The Infinite Pattern That Never Repeats



The Higgs boson, by Heather Gray and Bruno Mansoulie https://atlas.cern/updates/atlas-feature/higgs-boson 

Our expanding Universe: Age, History & Other Facts https://www.space.com/52-the-expanding-universe-from-the-big-bang-to-today.html

Cosmic Inflation https://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/topics_bigbang_inflation.html 

Inflation for beginners by John Gribbin http://aether.lbl.gov/www/science/inflation-beginners.html

Alan Guth https://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/scientists_guth.html  

What was it like when the Universe was inflating https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/

Symmetry and Symmetry Breaking https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/symmetry-breaking/



4. Floating in the magic of hydrogen - 3 minutes after big bang to 1 billion years

The great Professor Carl Sagan (his 1980s series "Cosmos" marked my childhood, thank you!) once said that "we are all made of star dust", and Professor Michio Kaku has said that "our destiny is tight to the destiny of the stars". This Universe is not ours, we human kind don't have the starring role in this Cosmic Theatre... they are! This is a Universe of stars, they're the real protagonist and we're just the spectators in the cosmic display of their birth, evolution and death. And what are stars made of? From the magic element of hydrogen

The first 3 minutes of the Universe, according to Science, was a roller-coaster of activity, with the temperature of the plasma/energetic cloud coming down dramatically and particles being formed and assembled together. These first 3 minutes are called Big Bang Nucleosynthesis -BBN- and this is when all the hydrogen in the Universe was formed (I guess it should have being named differently, to differentiate it from Stellar Nucleosynthesis -SN-). During these first 3 minutes some helium was formed too, so now we have hydrogen (very simple, just one proton) and helium (the second in the scale of complexity, with just 2 protons at its nucleus) plus gravity, and it just happens that hydrogen interacts with itself and with helium, and together with gravity they compact and form... you got it, a nuclear combustion: a star

It is really interesting to see and understand the evolution of any given star, as they are the ones who really rule the Universe, who formed galaxies, spirals, create light and give us all of the elements that form life and the reality as we perceive it. Why its life cycle is so precisely defined? Who design it? Those first 3 minutes of the Universe were absolutely critical. According to Science this is when matter and antimatter (or something similar between these two terms) annihilated, creating in the aftermath of the collisions the by-product of radiation and the particles of matter that we perceive today

Stellar Life Cycle


Take another look at the picture above. The only thing missing is the time scale that identifies each one of the phases. The sections "death" only last an instant in some occasions, while the "remnant" is for eternity. Life is ONLY possible around the stars type "Low Mass yellow" (our Sun type) and possible "Brown Draft" too. The other stars are too violent, too unstable and emitting too much gamma rays for life to have a chance to evolve as we know it, producing intelligent beings (Gamma rays break down DNA strands). Take another look at the picture above again, and notice that "Black Holes" are a consequence of massive stars containing over 40 times the solar mass... that's truly gigantic. So yes, all the objects we see in the sky are different representations of the transformation of stars

Scientists believe that, 20 minutes after the inflation finished, the Big Bang step 2 started, when the Universe was "cold" enough for hydrogen clouds to compact by the force of gravity, igniting their core and creating massive protostars of enormous sizes. So this is when the first black holes must have been created, right? Incredibly huge stars that exploded when the hydrogen at their centers was exhausted, and the left over ashes that had been created (layers of helium, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, etc) did not allow the outer hydrogen of the star to come and rescue the center, supplying hydrogen to it. Without the hydrogen, without the energy to fusion, gravity crashed all of the elements and a black hole is formed. The gargantuan shock-waves of its creation causes the star to explode. This all looks very cool, with the only problem that this theory cannot create stars as big as for example Betelgeuse ('only' 15 to 25 mass bigger than our sun), which if it were to replace our sun in the solar system its circumference will reach all the way up to Jupiter's orbit.  How such big and bigger stars like that can formed when the minute the gas is compacted it ignites, and pushes all other gases away? Something is still missing in the understanding of star formation, in particular of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), where the black hole at the center of every galaxy interacts with the stars around it, but whatever the process is, it definitely seems to be pretty close to what scientist believe it is now

  1. Okay, you start with a cloud of hydrogen which then compacts by gravity until it ignites into a star, meaning that it has began to fuse hydrogen into helium. The pressure at the nucleus of the star is so gigantic that new materials are created, depositing layers of dirty material around the nucleus that prevent the star from burning hydrogen to helium efficiently, and thus eventually the star explodes in a supernova
  2. Go and repeat the above process millions, literately millions of times
  3. You need to have millions, literately millions of years for this process of star-life-cycle to be repeated millions of times
  4. Eventually, a black hole will gather enough matter around it
  5. Eventually, the matter around the black hole will form spirals, as it orbits it
  6. Eventually, thermonuclear self-annihilation of stars (en event commonly known as supernova) will continue popping up, disruption these spirals and blasting materials at random directions
  7. Eventually, this material again will be attracted by the force of gravity, and through millions of years will fall to form spiral arms around the black hole
  8. Eventually, a galaxy will form, our galaxy

How long for this process to occur, so that a galaxy is formed? Well, approximately for the shape of our galaxy it must have taken just under a 1 billion years since the creation of the Universe, give or take a couple of centuries. After that time the structured of the Milky Way was pretty much defined by the hydrogen that accumulated around the accretion disk... but the formation of our Solar System was still very far away. Many more supernovas and supernovae (a type of 'dirty' supernova, e.g. with dust around it) needed to spark before even the random nebula of what it would be our sun started to form

Sagittarius A*, the black hole that sustains our galaxy, must have formed pretty early in the history of the Universe, for it to held our galaxy at the tender age of just below 1 billion years. According to scientists, the first massive stars began to shine as soon at the temperature of the Universe dropped, and the space in between the atoms, the 'fog' of the early Universe, allowed for the hydrogen to collapse and the formation of stars to occur. That was as soon as 200 million years after the Big Bang, pretty much as soon as possible for Universe's standards

If we compare the magnificent explanation of Dr Brian Cox (video below) about the creation of elements in the stars with the pressure that a black hole suffers, we can determine that the pressure at the 'singularity' elements have just a few miles down the surface of a black hole is nowhere as close as the intense pressure that the core endures. Yet, black holes don't explode, they have reached a level of stability by which no new elements are formed, "process zero" takes places at the center of black holes, obviously no fusion no nothing: zero change of evolution at the center of a black hole, that's is the end of matter and energy, no further transformation will ever occur of the matter absorbed by a black hole..... right?

One of the many, many amazing videos of Manchester University's Professor Brian Cox:

Star Death and the Creation of Elements - Wonders of the Universe: Stardust, preview - BBC Two

And here two simulations of how our Milky Way Galaxy must have formed. Be my guest and pick your choice! Both simulations are understood to start at 1 billion years old Universe and finished at 9.1 billions years old, just on time for our Sun to ignite, meaning that both videos comprise a 8.1 billions years of gravity pulling, stars forming and dying and hydrogen dancing

  •  Be brave and play these 2 videos at the same time, is cool!


  • Why is it that the simplest elements ever contain so much energy? For example liquid hydrogen is use for rocket fuel, and its atom is very simplistic, just one proton, one neutron and one electron, the simplest form of matter yet the closest to pure energy that we know. Compare this atom with the the uranium atom in the opposite side of the scale. Uranium has 92 protons and 92 electrons... if with one-proton-atom we can create hydrogen fuel that allow us to go to space, how far can we go with a ninety-two-proton-atom? Are fusion and fission so incompatible? Why cannot we get an energy source that cycle in between the two methods? hydrogen and uranium?
  • Based on the Stellar Life Cycle... black holes are the result of hydrogen being transformed and compressed. If everything come from hydrogen fusion, that means that the black holes somehow are the ultimate result of fusion hydrogen. It is not gravity what sucks all the material into a black hole, it is the strong nuclear force of the material that the black hole is made of what attracts the falling atoms. Could that be true? Black hole do have space, because they have a mass and therefore must have a space for this mass to exist...right?
  • The massive black hole of galaxy Holmberg 15A is 3 times bigger than our solar system: https://www.sciencealert.com/an-absolutely-gargantuan-black-hole-has-been-found-as-massive-as-40-billion-suns Undoubtedly, the strength of such gravitational field projected by this gigantic black hole must cause an effect and influence in the space of the galaxy where the black hole is, and therefore the Universe. Could the formation of black holes act as 'breaks' to slow down the expansion of the Universe? Or is the Universe actually accelerating because of a decreasing rate of black hole formation? 
  • Sagittarius A* is estimated to be 6 millions as massive as the Sun. No way such massive black hole could have been created from a single star, the supernova shock-waves capable of generated a 6 millions mass black hole would probably have shred the whole galaxy apart! Therefore our local black hole must have been the merging of more than one black holes. Is that phenomena so recurring? Are we living in an Universe where really black holes are the ruling guys and not the shiny stars? Given the fact we can't see/detect them directly, there could possible be millions of these guys circling the spiral arms of the galaxy, slowly moving inwards through the bulge in collision course to Sag A*
  • In about 4 billions years, if you are still around, get your shades and prepare for the collision of Andromeda vs 'Via Lactea' galaxies. Are their respective massive black holes attracting to one another? What has originated this collision path, and why hasn't it occurred in the last 13.7 billions years? Without giving much thought to that, it is obvious that both galaxies are been attracted to each other because of the pull of their respective black holes, the only guys with enough strength to move galaxies across empty space. Are we talking here about a new gravity force specifically bounded to black holes? If normal gravity causes the Earth to rotate around the Sun by "falling" into the space-time fabric, could these two black holes of Andromeda and The Milky Way by pulling one another by "eating" the space in between the galaxies?



Nucleosynthesis https://www.universetoday.com/51797/nucleosynthesis/

Where Do Chemical Elements Come From? https://www.acs.org/content/dam/acsorg/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/articlesbytopic/nuclearchemistry/chemmatters-oct2009-origin-chem-elem.pdf

Blogging the Periodic Table, by Sam Kean http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/elements/ 

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis https://physics.info/nucleosynthesis/ 

Chronology of the Universe https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronology_of_the_universe 

Origins of the Elements https://www2.lbl.gov/abc/wallchart/chapters/10/0.html  

The Element Hydrogen https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele001.html 

Why did the Universe start off with Hydrogen, Helium and not much else? https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/  

Mily Way age narrowed down https://www.space.com/263-milky-age-narrowed.html  

Big problem in star formation theory solved? https://www.realclearscience.com/articles/2013/09/04/

Scientists keep debunking 'monster black hole' discovery https://www.space.com/monster-black-hole-lb1-discovery-debunked.html

21,1 cm y el culebrón cósmico del átomo de hidrógeno https://elpais.com/ciencia/2021-03-24/211-cm-y-el-culebron-cosmico-del-atomo-de-hidrogeno.html

A star's plunge toward a hug black hole shows (again) that Einstein was pretty smart https://www.syfy.com/syfywire/a-stars-plunge-toward-a-huge-black-hole-shows-again-that-einstein-was-pretty-smart



5. The Helios nebula - 1 billion years to 9.1 billions years after the big bang

The semantic of the word 'nebula' can be used to describe both the death of a star as well as the birth of new others. Our Sun, according to Science, is a third generation star, meaning that the hydrogen it contains has already experience the interaction with at least two previous stars, now gone. All the hydrogen in the Sun must have suffered the blast and gamma rays flood of at least two previous supernovas or supernovae, causing it to compact and contract in the third generation star that is our Sun. The first generations stars were the first ones ever to have been formed, and all of them must have (being initially so massive) exploded into supernovas, leaving behind either black holes or neutron stars. Then the 2nd generations stars were formed from the leftovers of the first generation stars. They burn much slowly but eventually they too collapsed or interacted with one another, exploding into yet again more supernovas or transforming themselves into white dwarf stars from which detritus our Sun formed, a third generation star. It is estimated that 3 to 5 new stars form every year just in the Milky Way, all of them being 3rd generation stars or even beyond

Our Sun must have been part of a Nebula when it was young, which other stars where part of that nebula? At present our closest star is Proxima Centauri, at just 4.2 light years away, but it has been the closest for only the last 32,000 years, that is 0.032 of the 4.6 billions years of age of the Sun, absolutely nothing! The Gaia spacecraft seems to have found so far at least 2 other stars that have the same elements signature composition as our sun, meaning that they were form in the same nursery Nebula. One of them is called "HD 162826" and the other one "HD 186302", the former being 110 light years way while the other about 184 light years away.... pretty long distances for our closest related sun-family

During my research, I did not find a specific name for the nebula where our sun was born, so I'll call this nebula "Helios Nebula". I would love that Science could go back with its instruments 4.6 billions years ago, when this nebula was formed, and study it, to figure out how many stars where in this nebula, where the gas and dust came from, how many supernovas where needed, any black holes around, etc. What is left from this "Helios Nebula", the nebula where our Sun was created? Go and figure, the time scale is enormous. In these 4.6 billions years lots of stars, drifting in space, have passed through our Sun neighbourhood

This video, which expand 10 light years only, shows the current vicinity of stars around our Sun; notice the prominent position of the bright Sirius at just 8.6 light years away:

Sun's neighboring stars and why are we here 

The Sun has only circle the Milky Way 22 times since its creation (technically, we can therefore say that the Sun is a 22 years-old-galactic-star). When our Sun ignited in the galaxy the milky way was 9.1 billion years old, and this is it: after the Sun ignited no more hydrogen will come to its rescue, once it burns it all that will be the end of it, the life of our Sun is determined by the amount of hydrogen used in its creation, and in that sense hydrogen equals time. That also means that there is no more creation of new materials that can be "broadcast" by the sun, unless from extraterrestrial source (which probably will be older) all of the atoms that you see around you and in planet Earth are at least 4.6 billions years old or older. So yes, technically you look pretty good for all of your atoms to be 4.6 billions years old, just imagine in how many "entities" have your atoms resided and animated before they chose to sustain your body and its thoughts.....do you hate spiders? Where your atoms perhaps part of a butterfly in the Pleistocene -2.5 millions years ago- that was eating by a spider? Could this refinements of atoms be an conductor to 'tune' the atoms and allows them to host abstracts thoughts, able to ponder about their own existence? Hummm, it makes you think

Okay, jumping back again into the unstoppable road of Science towards enlightenment, let's face now another big bump: in Science the theories need to be proved and tested, and the theory that the Sun formed out of a Nebula and that the solar system formed out of the cloud of gas around the Sun, like an accretion disk, seems to be a pile of work-in-progress, there are still lots of things that we don't understand, and a lot more research needs to be done in this area. For example, this theory doesn't explain the behaviour of hydrogen: gravity cannot compact it to such extend that it ignites, the hydrogen tend to expand (as long as it has space) when it is compacted because it gets hot, further more when it gets compacted it turns into liquid: why did it not turn to liquid into space, to plasma? There must have been another chemical reaction or another element in play that caused the hydrogen to ignite, the answer of compacting it by gravity is not good enough. Could there be the supernova factor the one that "pushed" the clouds to create stars? And if so, how could the first ever supernova be created, when there was not enough 'push' by any other supernova to compact the cloud of gas?

One of the main issues of the solar system cloud-theory is the position of Jupiter and Saturn, the gas giants: they cannot had formed in the position where they are now. If they formed by a circling spinning of gas that "eventually" compacted, that far away from the sun, the gas will spin very slow and it will take, if ever, 20 times the age of the Universe for the gas to be compacted into a planet the size of Jupiter or Saturn. Just like on the Piñata Game, astronomers are throwing blows with their eyes covered, aiming to hit aided by chance the answer to the gas planets formation, and in one of those blows they stipulated that, okay, maybe Jupiter and Saturn were formed closer to the sun and then somehow "migrated" to their current orbit. How could these two chaps migrate just like that? Only a passing star or black hole would have caused such migration of orbits of these two giants, and in any case, in all the simulation that scientist have done of this theoretical migration, the Mars problem arises, and Mars never end up where it is now

This problem of gas planet formation so far away for its parent star gets extrapolated to the insanity when we consider the position of the other two gas giants: Uranus and Neptune, both so far away from the sun that it is impossible a distant remnant of a cloud-like could have been formed them just by gravity. But undoubtedly, they are there, they were created. What other forces were involved in the gas giants creation? To solve this problem scientist use a very (to my opinion) naive and simplistic answer: "okay, then the gas giants must have formed closer to the Sun and the "migrated" or "shifted" afterwards".... Hello? Seriously? Where did the rocky planets went while this migration took place? The force of the migration would have pushed the Earth out of the solar system. What could have caused this migration anyway? A by-passing star? If so, why didn't it affect at all to the rocky planets? Could it be, I wonder, that when the Sun ignited, all the planets were formed and the solar-wind pushed the planets away? If not, does it means that our solar system is unique due its formation, where the big boys migrate outward in the solar system, leaving the space for the small ones to thrive, undisturbed in the inner solar system, and eventually create Life? And due to this unique migration, does it render Life an extraordinary one-time only event in the Universe? And another intriguing question: why Jupiter is not a star? It certainly has the right composition of Hydrogen and is bigger than other stars that we see that have ignited their hydrogen in the sky.  Yes, indeed more research is needed to solve the so many inconsistencies that we have in the Helios Nebula chapter

I'd like to share this video of Barry Setterfield, where he raised some legitimate questions that yep... some of them are not quite answered yet by Science and they need to be. Remember guys and gals, be aware of bias-influence and don't be afraid of asking questions, no matter how weird they are: we need to understand how the Universe works, and not to change the Universe so that it can fit our current understanding

Solar System formation


  • Of the two twin-stars of our Sun that Science has found so far, do they have rocky planets like Earth that can sustain Life? We must find out whether earth-like-planets are a unique rare occurrence, and once in a lifetime Universe event, or if they are commonly widespread across the Cosmos. Either way, with these stars being at over 100 light years away, chances are that any twin Earth 2.0 planet that they might host are definitely and totally out of reach
  • When the sun ignited, was the Earth formed? Probably yes, it must have been frozen cold, far away from the image of "hot molten surface" that many sources picture the early Earth like, though at the time of Theia collision the surface must have melted. Science has dated the age of the Earth at 4.4 billions years old based on zircon crystal found in Australia, in the surface of the planet... If the surface is 4.4 billion years old, then the interior must be older, right? My point is why do we assume that the Sun has to be formed first and then after the planets? Maybe the Earth was a protoplanet, 70% of its size long before the sun ignited, as the dust originated by the star previous to the sun. Can somebody please explain me why we assume that the Earth formed after the Sun was grown up and shinning? It could have potentially existed before
  • So... where is the black hole, neutron star and/or white dwarf that created our Sun? In other words, where is the remnant of its core?  It is not hidden under the carpet! It must be somewhere pretty close... and yes it is... I think. The star Sirius A, which is 8.6 light years away, has a small companion called Sirius B, small draft star that could well be the remaining grandfather or our Sun. Does the sun spins around Sirius?
  • Why does the sun experience a cycle of 11 years? Sun spots, an indication of the internal nuclear reactions of the sun, are fluctuating up and down in a predefined cycled of 11 years, does this have a relation to the way our home star rotates? The sun rotates once every 25 hours in the equator and once every 35 days at the poles. Do these rotations have a relation with the 11 years cycle? Is the sun rotation unique or does another star share a similar gravity pattern of 11 years? Why 11 and not 13? Do the two found sibling stars of our sun experience the same 11 years life cycle? Why does the sun returns (as seen from Earth) to exactly the same position it has in the sky in cycles of 33 years?

It is not possible to finish this chapter without an acknowledgment to one of the most beautiful creation of the human race: the periodic table, an amazing job started by Russian chemist Dimitri Mendeleev, that clearly shows there is order in the Universe, the fact that you can put its elements in their atomic weight order, in a table that make sense no matter how many new elements are found, is very significant: there is indeed structure around us.... does it mean there is meaning too?


The Origin of the Solar System Elements

Credit: Jennifer Johnson



How can there be 1,000 stellar ancestors before our Sun? https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/16311/how-can-there-be-1-000 

Alpha Centauri: Closest star to Earth https://www.space.com/18090-alpha-centauri-nearest-star-system.html 

Proxima Centauri, distance and motion https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxima_Centauri#Distance_and_motion  

Gaia's surprising discoveries  http://sci.esa.int/gaia/60186-gaia-s-surprising-discoveries-scrutinising-the-milky-way/ 

Sirius  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sirius 

List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_nearest_stars_and_brown_dwarfs

HD 162826  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HD_162826 

HD 186302  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HD_186302 

Death Spiral: Why Theorists Can’t Make Solar Systems  https://www.space.com/2206-death-spiral-theorists-cant-solar-systems.html

Solar System formation problems https://thecreationclub.com/solar-system-formation-problems-bob-enyart/ 

Solar system formation by accretion has no observational evidence https://creation.com/accretion-hypothesis 

Does our sun revolve around sirius? https://niqnaq.wordpress.com/2009/08/03/does-our-sun-revolve-around-sirius-you-tell-me/

Solar rotation varies by latitude https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/science/solar-rotation.html

Jupiter Is Bigger Than Some Stars, So Why Didn't We Get a Second Sun?  https://www.sciencealert.com/why-isn-t-jupiter-a-star

Periodic Table of Elements https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/periodic-table/#view=table&property=GroupBlock




Let's cover now in Section 2 the shaping of planet Earth and its peculiarities

1. The kiss of Theia - 4.5 billion years ago

9.2 billion years of time have passed, and as far as we know nobody was there to ever tell the story. At this point of the article we reach a stage where the Earth is finally formed... kind of...at this moment we should call our beloved planet "Earth minus 1" (also called Gaia by scientists, but I much prefer to use the name Gaia for our current planet). At this moment in time, our "planet-to-be" is about to face one of the most significant transformation that makes it the special home in the Cosmos that we know it today: the only planet where Life exist. It all started 4.5 billions years ago, when Earth -1 was hit by an object the size of planet Mars, to what would be (we hope) the last planetary collision that formed planet Earth, Gaia. It is thought that the inner solar system must have been a very crowded place, with about 20 protoplanets (planets-to-be) down to the 4 rocky planets that we know today (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and maybe the asteroids belt too), therefore collisions must have happened in the past to reduce that number from around 20 to 4 plus the asteroids belt. Only collisions with other big objects can explain why the Earth is spinning so fast, while Venus... rotate backwards, in retrograde mode; this sort of collisions can also explain why Earth is the biggest of the inner rocky planets while Mercury, who probably had very few collisions, is tiny is comparison to Earth. With every collision that Earth -1 was encountering, its surface and part of the mantle was smashed to pieces, and obviously from the early beginning when Earth was just the size of a continent in space, the heavy materials began to sunk to the center, like nickel but mostly iron (symbol fe), the last of the materials that a star can create just before going supernova. The iron inside Earth must all be very ancient, probably originated from the leftovers of the star father to our Sun, before it went supernova. Iron is a special material, the gateway mineral to other dimensions. It is interesting to know that Iron is both the death cause of a star (when a star starts producing iron, it just got days lo live) and the reason planets like ours are able to sustain Life, as it powers our magnetic field, not to mention the fundamental weight that iron and its subsequence alloys have at the time of empowering and sustaining the infrastructure of our civilisation

It is still very debatable the state of Earth -1 prior to Theia collision, and in fact whether the accretion disk theory is valid or not, but without any doubt (you can feel it under your feet) the Earth was indeed formed, and massive collisions with other planets, fighting all for an undisputed space to orbit around the Sun, must have happened in the past. The picture below is a theorised aspect of how the Solar System would have looked 4.5 billions years ago or so, with nearly 20 planets rotating an infant 1 billion years old sun. It is just pure chance that we ended up with 4 inner planets, had the collision of those hypothetical 20 bodies behave differently, we could have end up with 8 inner rocky planets, or even just one, like some of the gigantic exoplanets that we keep discovering nowadays in other solar systems, most of them too hostile to hold liquid water, and therefore unable to host Life as we know it (good to hear that Kepler-62e and 62f could be an exception!). Where did all the rocky material to from our planets came from anyway? Must have been orbiting around the nebula from which the sun's hydrogen collapsed and ignited. As mentioned before, Hydrogen is a gas that, for us here on Earth, takes a lots of effort to compact: it turns into liquid when under pressure. Maybe hydrogen in space behaves differently, perhaps it interacts with dark matter, and it can actually compact an ignite in the vacuum (it definitely ignites somehow, otherwise there would be no stars in the Universe!)

Early solar system protoplanets

 Credit: Evolution of the Solar System: Miracle Planet - The Violent Past

In any case, it is thought that, at the time of this last mayor collision of planet Earth, its surface was completely melted, as if it had already experience very recently other significant impacts, or perhaps it was under the extreme pressure of the imminent collision, getting hotter and hotter with every revolution Earth vs Theia were practising around the Sun, and the surface began to melt by the tidal gravitational waves of Theia. Definitely, right after the impact, the Earth surface was nothing but an immense ocean of liquefy rock, nothing was solid. Only this state of liquefied rock on the whole surface of Earth can explain why the Moon density and rocks composition are so close to those found in the surface of our planet. Literally all the mantle of liquefied rock that was covering the Earth was flown away after the impact. The planet that collided with Earth, as you already guessed, is called Theia, wisely named after the Greek mythology mother of the Moon. In this picture below you see at scale 1:1 a representation of Earth, Mars and the Moon, so you get the idea of how a planet the size of Mars hit our planet (which in the picture below -prior collision- must have been smaller), and that from that collision an object the size of the Moon formed out of the debris. No one is to say that there probably were two or three moons after the impact, but whichever objects were orbiting Earth, eventually they all gather together though the gravity-cannibalism process into our current Moon. The Moon moves away from Earth at a rate of 3.4 cm per year, still driven by the initial separation force of the impact

Earth, Mars and Moon planets size comparison


This collision defines the character of our planet: we are the product of this primeval accident. The collision is rare because it happens (and it was MAJOR) just after the planet is form, when normally this sort of massive collision would have happened during the creation of the planet. For many many millennia, if not millions of years, Theia and Earth -1 were in a collision course. Perhaps every year, during their orbits around the Sun, they draw closer and closer to one another, maybe others collisions around the solar system altered their orbits, but eventually Theia crashed into the Earth (notice that it wasn't the other way around), and luckily for us the Earth remained on an stable orbit around the Sun after the impact, without the risk of colliding with any of its closest neighbours. You might argue that this event does not make our Earth any special than other planets. As mentioned before Venus, Mars and Mercury also had collisions and that's why some of them are bigger than others (the more matter acquired during the collision, the bigger the planet). And surely there must have been many collisions in the Universe similar to that of Earth vs Theia... who knows how many! One for every Solar System? That would be millions and billions of collisions....however... for life to exist after a collision like that on Earth the following factors must all be met to a staggering precision:

  • Theia was the right size of 1/3 of Earth (the size of Mars). Had it been smaller the force of the collision would not had been powerful enough to eject enough matter from the surface of Earth that will eventually create the Moon, which is of utmost significant to support life on Earth, as we later on will see. Had it been bigger the monumental energy of that collision might have split the Earth in two planets. But nope, the collision was of the right size, and for millions of years after it, our planet must have had rings, just like those in Saturn,  while the Moon was still forming and acquiring the material from those rings. How often this radio of collisions 1: 1/3 occurs? Okay, there might be collisions in every Solar System during its formation, but that of a radio 1:1/3? The odds of a similar collision like that on Earth occurring somewhere else in the Universe, have now suddenly been diminished
  • Theia was travelling at the right speed for the collision to be kind of "gentle", something like around 4 kilometres per second (the asteroid that wiped the dinosaurs, just a tiny fraction of what Theia must have been in size, was travelling a lot faster in comparison with Theia, at an estimated speed of 30 kilometres a second). Had it been faster probably the debris (and hence the Moon after the collision) would have been flown away escaping Earth's gravity. Had it been slower and the debris would have fallen into the Earth and the Moon would never have formed. What are the odds of this "tender" kiss of Theia happening everywhere else in other collisions? The planet must have been dragged by others through hundreds of revolutions around the Sun, and when it finally hit Earth -1 it was moving slow, wiping the surface of Earth -1 with a gentle but determine push
  • Theia hit with the right angle. The collision wasn't back-to-head, or worse head-to-head, which would have happened if they were orbiting in different counter-clock rotations. Needless to say that Theia must have been orbiting clockwise around the Sun, just like Earth and all the other planets do, otherwise the collision, had it been head-to-head, would probably have created a flat surface of compacted iron and metals of no use... was perhaps the alien visitor Oumuamua of 2017 created like that? This right-angle of collision had the crucial effect of causing the Earth to start spinning really fast, kick-starting a long lasting geo-dynamo effect, when the core melted by the collisions and the upper area of silicates in the nucleus started rotating faster than the interior of iron, creating the magnetic field that protect us from ultra-violet and gamma rays of the sun
  • Theia was composed of the right materials: surely rock, but Theia must have been very rich in iron too. After the collision, the iron of Theia was absorbed by the Earth, sinking down into the nucleus and strengthening the magnetic field of our planet that makes it deflect the deadly radiation of the Sun, by protecting the ozone layer and other gases from erosion, which filters those deadly rays. That may explain why the inner core of Earth is so rich in iron and nickel, and so big in comparison with the planet itself. Theia literally gave fuel and kinetic energy to Earth, so that it can power its magnetic field, that as we know is of critical importance to life on Earth; without it, the gamma rays (radioactivity) will have prevented any cells from grouping because these high energy rays penetrate anything and destroy any DNA that could have been formed. Life on Earth will not exist on our surface if it wasn't for the quick rotation and iron composition of our planet, that powers our magnetic field

Theia collision

So we have to really be thankful to Theia, this "random accident" set the right conditions for our planet to host life. After the collision the atmosphere of our planet was reset, gone, kaput, it was composed then of of rock vapour, which eventually condensed, was there any water there? I'll look into that on the next chapter. The Moon formed as a ring first, it is estimated by psychics calculations or the current orbits, that right after the impact the orbit of the Moon took 20 days while the days on Earth were lasting 6 hours only

Furthermore, the collision left our planet still on the Continuously Habitable Zone (CHZ) of our star, what a relief! Nobody knows if our planet was already on that habitable zone prior the collision, maybe we have to thank to Theia too to leave us right in the center of that blessed zone after her kiss! The habitable zone is a defined area around the Sun were water can exist in liquefied and vapour form, and which borders are still very debatable, with the idea that both Venus and Mars (each on them on opposite sides and at the edges of the habitable zone) also hosted liquid oceans in the past, and had the capabilities of hosting life. Being on the HZ doesn't necessarily means that the planet support life, is just an indicator, meaning that chemical reactions suitable of supporting life are more likely to happen on that area, where water can exist in a liquid state. We need to make a differentiation between the Continuously Habitable Zone (CHZ), the one we are an that is constant during the main sequence lifetime of a star, and the actual Habitable Zone (HZ), which may only last for a few million years. For example, in a few billion years from now the Sun will lose his hydrogen, and start expanding, incinerating planet Earth during its way. For a brief period of time, maybe a few million years, both the moon Europa of Jupiter and the moon Titan of Saturn will be on the Habitable Zone of our star, so Life can potentially manifest during that period in there. However, these moons are not in the CHZ, so whichever life forms can be created while they are warm, will be short lived because with the relentless expansion of the Sun, they'll also be incinerated and reduced to dust, not sure if they will have enough time to question why are we here

The Moon, like the Mother, is a giver of Life, literally. The Moon creates frictions and drags that slows our planet, causing the atmosphere to be more benign without so many powerful hurricane forces. If the Moon wasn't there, and considering the rapid rotation of our planet, each of the hurricanes that will form would be absolutely devastating. Without the Moon, and the 'smooth' tilt effect that it has on us (wobble), there could had been two possible outcomes: either the Earth would have had no tilt meaning that everywhere will receive 12 hours of day/night, just like Mercury, cold will always be freezing and hot will always be an boiling, obliterating the surface, or we would have had an exacerbate tilt, meaning that the North Pole would be in almost the Equator during summer time and vice verse. Both scenarios are part of Science Fiction thanks to the existence of our Moon, which provides a sinuous tilt to planet Earth, enable sessions stations (Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn) and essentially nurturing life


Habitable zone with volcanic hydrogen

Credit: R. Ramirez, Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell

This impact was also the direct cause of the rapid rotation of our planet. We know for fossil records that, in the distant past, the Earth was rotating much faster, and that is actually slowing as time pass by. Right after the impact, it is estimated that it must have been spinning at a rate of 5/6 hours to complete a day. We know this because of coral fossils, dated 4 billions years ago, showing on the filaments of deposit that a year lasted 410 days, meaning the days must have been shorter. Once the planet cooled, the gases condensed and water began magically appearing on the surface of Earth, and that is when the role of the Moon became to be decisive, as it regulates the fast rotation of Earth, stabilising the wobble of the poles and that of the Earth itself at an angles of 23 degrees, preventing that the North or South pole move further beyond an inclination of 23 degrees from its spin axes. Complex life forms would have been impossible on Earth, otherwise, with drastic changes of temperature that would have make the timeline of evolution to stop at the single cells barrier. Just imagine that every year, for 3 or 4 months, the North Pole of our planet falls into the city of Rome, and around that area you get 70 or 90 degrees Celsius below zero. This rapid shifting of the poles is regulated by the Moon, which just happens to be of the right size too, to effective and efficiently have the gentle gravitational force to prevent the wobble of the Earth from creating extreme temperatures on the surface, yet allowing a mild-wobble, that causes seasons like winter, spring, summer and autumn, fundamental aspects of the mechanics of evolution. I know I am repeating myself from the previous paragraph, but I love it! I find this impact so fascinating

In addition to all to these "fortunate" circumstances, another incredible benefit of Theia's impact was the creation of our magnetic field. See the picture below a comparison of Venus, Earth and Mars effect of the solar wind over their individual atmospheres. None of our neighbours have a significant magnetic field that deflect the deadly sun rays. This is disappointing particularly when looking at Venus, our twin-planet, of similar size to Earth and expected to have a similar size of iron core, yet no magnetic field. After all, both Venus and Earth were formed in exactly the same conditions, so how come they evolved so differently?....well, that's the thing: they did not form with the exact same conditions. Venus's rotation is extremely slow, a day takes half a Venusian year, while our day last only 24 hours. Our Earth was gently kissed by Theia, kick starting the magnetic field, and that was the beginning of a history of love between Life and our planet. Every time you see a shooting star, burning bright in the pitch black sky as it kisses the atmosphere, think that that piece of rock that you have just seen burnt could well be a leftover of Theia's collision, still a reminder of the eternal kiss of love in between these two planets


Credit: European Space Agency (esa). Artist representation of Venus, Earth and Mars solar wind interaction

And you might wonder... all right, how do we know all these thing happened? Nobody was there during the collision to take a snap and upload it to Instagram, right? For those silly cows who still believe we did not reach the Moon, I've got a surprise for you: we did indeed landed in the Moon. The Apollo missions 11, 14 and 15, back on the late 1960s and early 1970s, placed some special mirrors on the surface of the Moon, which helped us measure 'exactly' the distance between our planet and its satellite. It turns out that the Moon is receding from Earth at a rate of 3.8 centimetres a year, roughly the same rate at which your nails grow. If the Moon is receding, that means that in past it must have been closer, right? You do the calculations, going back in time, and it turns out that around 4.5 billions years ago the Moon was just 22,000 kilometres from our planet...while now (at its closest approach, the perigee) is at approximately 363,000 kilometres, that's a clear indication that the Moon formed out of debris circling planet Earth, debris product of a collision. Besides, the rock samples that the Apollo astronauts brought from the Moon, show that the surface of the Moon is a burnt version twin of our planet, and that both have the same origin, both were one part of the same thing. Like Tony Robinson said on the Catastrophe British Documentary series: "we are here by chance; we survived, 99% of all the species who ever existed, didn't"

What part of our planet did Theia hit? This is a really tricky question, but I want to know, and in spite of that collision happened 4.5 billion years ago, and given the fact that the aftermath of its effect are clearly perceived nowadays (fast rotation of our planet, for example) I believe that some scars may have been left on the planet, right? I am probably talking nonsense, but the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), a distortion on our magnetic field, has all the needed shape and position, right close to the Equator, to reflect the point of impact of Theia, and there is evidence that this anomaly is at least 11 million years older, could it be much much older? And if my supposition is right and the South Atlantic Anomaly is the actual place where Theia hit, what where the effect of such immense impact on the other side of the globe? Could the feature called volcanic ring of fire, around the Pacific Ocean, be a result of Theia's collision? I know the magnetic field of our planet formed after Theia's collision, and that the ring of fire is a plaque tectonic development way younger than Theia's collision, but I like to present the reader with this sort of questions (where did Theia collided?). We are not afraid of asking, and every possible explanation should be investigated. The existence of the Large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs), irregular structures of the mantle of our planet, could also be an indication of where Theia made its kiss


Is this where Theia collided? Credit: The CHAOS-7 geomagnetic field model




Credit Should we still study LLSVPs?


Thanks to Theia, the stage to support Life in long-term conditions was setup on our planet. Now, the time was ready for water to appear on the surface and for some chemical reactions to occur undisrupted for billion of years. To close this chapter nicely, let's recap the conditions so far of our planet to support life. If any other planet fail to account for any of these bullet points, game over for Life!:

  1. The star hosting the planet must be on a quiet area of the galaxy, safe from supernovas that will sterilise the prospects of life, and safe from invisible black holes too!
  2. The star must be at a safe distance from its neighbourhood, to prevent collisions or unexpected visits during the life of the planets subjects to host Life
  3. The star itself must be very stable, shinning steadily for billions of years. Come on, our sun has not taken a break even once!
  4. The planet must be positioned in the habitable zone of the star, for liquid water to form on the surface. Water is a key element for chemical reactions to develop into Life
  5. The planet must have a magnetosphere or something to deflect or reduce the amount of radiation coming from the parent star, radiation that otherwise will sterilise the planet
  6. For a magnetosphere to be powerful enough to do that, the planet must be spinning fast
  7. For a magnetosphere to be powerful enough to do that, the planet must have enough iron on its nucleus to behave as a geo-dynamo and generate the magnetic field
  8. For the planet to spin fast and also has enough iron, some sort of collision must have occurred on the planet during its birth, to ensure its spin motion is fast enough for the effect of geo-dynamo to manifest. Without the extra push of a collision, and had the planet had a magnetic field from its very origins, this one would have shutdown half-way through the life of the planet, which is probably what happened on Mars
  9. A Moon or other mechanism must exist around the planet, to counteract for the fluctuations that such a rapid spin may produce on the surface of the planet, like extreme temperatures that will compromise the evolution of Life
  10. A big protector, like Jupiter or similar, must exist to absorb comets and collision that otherwise will jeopardise the evolution of Life on that planet, resetting it every time a major collision occur
  11. Plaque Tectonics must be present in the planet to drive the dynamics of the weather and release heat from the interior in a timely fashion, else the planet may experience "basaltic eruptions" in an aim to lose heat, like those occurring in Venus which will flood the surface with lava every half a million years or so and chock the atmosphere with CO2

Even the kiss of Theia had an impact in the long run in our civilisation, with the creation of the Lagrange Points that are so useful nowadays by our spacecrafts, they do exist thanks to the presence of the Moon, and hence due to Theia's collision with Earth -1

Yep, there are 100 thousands million stars in the Milky Way alone (1 plus 8 zeros: 100.000.000). If each of those stars had a planet like Earth, how many of those will match these 10 conditions above? If each of these conditions only appears on 1/10 (one tenth) of the planets, that means a probability of... 0.01 planet. In theory, we shouldn't even exist



NASA Study: Moon is made of material from Earth, not Theia  https://www.extremetech.com/extreme/285173-new-nasa-study-suggests-moon-is-made-of-material-from-earth-not-theia 

How was the Moon formed? https://www.space.com/19275-moon-formation.html 

Giant Impact Hypothesis: an evolving legacy of Apollo https://astronomy.com/news/2019/05/giant-impact-hypothesis-an-evolving-legacy-of-apollo 

Oumuamua origin history: How our mysterious interstellar visitor may have been born https://www.space.com/interstellar-object-oumuamua-origins-tidal-disruption.html

When exoplanets collide https://news.ucsc.edu/2019/10/exoplanets-collide.html

When the Impact that Created the Moon Happened https://www.universetoday.com/142117/when-the-impact-that-created-the-moon-happened-the-early-earth-was-still-a-ball-of-magma/ 

The Moon has been drifting away from Earth for 4.5 billion years  https://www.businessinsider.com/video-moon-drifts-away-earth-4-billion-years-2019-9?r=US&IR=T

Why Venus doesn't have a magnetosphere? https://phys.org/news/2017-12-doesnt-venus-magnetosphere.html

Apollo 11 Misson: Laser Ranging Retroreflector https://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/experiments/lrr/

Earth-Moon Dynamics https://www.lpi.usra.edu/exploration/training/illustrations/earthMoon/

What did the Moon look like from Earth 4 billion years ago? https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2018/07/11/what-did-the-moon-look-like-from-earth-4-billion-years-ago/

NASA study solves two mysteries about wobbling Earth https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=6332

With all these new planets found in the habitable zone https://www.universetoday.com/139699/with-all-these-new-planets-found-in-the-habitable-zone-maybe-its-time-to-fine-tune-the-habitable-zone/ 

The Earth Magnetic Field, an overview http://www.geomag.bgs.ac.uk/education/earthmag.html

Rising Rock, Earth's Crust has its own tides too https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/rising-rock-earths-crust-has-its-own-tides.htm

Why does t he Moon gravity cause tides but the sun doesn't? https://www.wtamu.edu/~cbaird/sq/2013/05/09/why-does-the-moons-gravity-cause-tides-on-earth-but-the-suns-gravity-doesnt/

How old is Earth? https://www.space.com/24854-how-old-is-earth.html

South Atlantic anomalies existed 8 - 11 million years ago https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/07/200720152407.htm

Giant impact origin for the Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces https://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2021/pdf/1980.pdf

Scientists explain magnetic pole's wanderings https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-52550973



2. Diving in the origins of Water - from 4.5 billion years to 500 million years ago

Where did all the water of our planet comes from? If I believed that finding an answer to the question "Why are we here?" was a challenge, it turns out that discovering an explanation to the origin of the water is even a bigger endeavour. Okay, you might say, who cares about why we are here, anyway? After all, this is a kind of metaphysical question for which every person will has an answer, so trying to 'fix' an answer for such erratic bubbling question is pretty absurd and a complete waste of time. I take that, but... for the question of where all the water of our planet comes from... that is something really different. We need to know where all this water comes from, end of the question. Water is a tangible object, our bodies are made of it and therefore our civilisation depends of it, so we really need to understand how the liquid element came to manifest in such quantities into the surface of our planet. If we want to ensure the survival of both our bodies and our civilisation, we need to know the answer to the origin of water with absolute certainty

Water molecules are simple: H2O, two atoms of hydrogen (the most common element of the Universe, formed after the Big Bang) and one atom of Oxygen that glues them two, forming an angle of 104.5 degrees. Oxygen, the third most abundant element in the Universe after hydrogen and helium, was forged inside the first generation of stars, then spread across the galaxy by supernovas. Yet, it seems small organisms can release oxygen by breaking down the water molecules (and I always wondered, where does the Hydrogen goes when the Oxygen is released by the plants/organism?). Life behaves like a supernova at the time of generating by-products, like Oxygen in Nucleosynthesis or Oxygen in Photosynthesis. Obviously, the water on Earth was formed by the "oxygen" that was left over after supernovas and that interacted with Hydrogen in the space to form water molecules. I can't really understand how water molecules are form out of the nothing up there in space, do they just bump on one another and decide to form a molecule? The oxygen that you now breath was released by small organisms million of years ago, trees and plants too and mostly by the oceans of nowadays, that oxygen was not produced inside a star. It is just not possible that the oxygen on the water was created by organisms, as they need the water to be there in the first place in order to exist. And what are the circumstances by which an Oxygen atom can join to two Hydrogen counterparts to form water? Gravity bounding pressure? And... is the oxygen in the water (the one created by supernovas) exactly the same as the oxygen in the air (the one released by nature) that we breath? So, if I got it right, we can just pump hydrogen and oxygen into the vacuum of space... and eventually water molecules will form our of those two? hello?

Water is a very, very, very... VERY....very special thing, it has the properties of cohesion, adhesion, a high specific heat, surface tension and polarity. Have a look at this amazing video below, and the lovely lady doing the presentation (I love the orchids background!), she explains you all these properties in more detail. To all of these properties, I'd like to add reflection: water does reflect light and that is yet another key component that plays a role at the time of supporting Life. The thing that amaze me the most is how water behaves when it is on its solid form: ice. It floats above its liquid state. Yes, ice floats over water, though this only happens on Light Water, and not Heavy Water. This is a unique property of the electrically charged molecules, and the 104.5 degrees that joins then to others, making the ice less dense than liquid water. Normally any substance on its solid form will sink when presented to the same substance on its liquid state, but that's not the case with water. This property, among the many others it has, creates a shields of ice over the liquid water below that protects any chemical reactions that may occur underneath the ice, thus truly supporting Life not just from the inside as a dissolvent and transport of energy, but also from the outside as a protector



Why snowflakes are hexagonal? has it got something to do with the 105.4 degrees of separation of the water molecules? and are they really unique from one another? Does water has memory, and therefore capable of storing information? And if so, is the water inside me linked to whichever other creatures hosted that same molecules in the past? Can it recall the violence and the love it was subject to? Is a cluster of water-structure the ultimate key that powers the thoughts of our brains? Does water 're-align' itself harmoniously when expose to music and healthy vibrations? When we bless the food... are we actually projecting positive energy on the water of the food, thus make it harmoniously structured and healthy? Why rivers from 'meanders' and they don't go on regular lines? After all, nature energy-safe-philosophy dictates that the shortest distance between A and B is a straight line, right? Does our planet emit a healthy vibration that allows water to support life effortlessly? Organisms prefer to be formed of water, as it contains the perfect medium to transport energy (think of a tall tree, and the water carrying the nutrients to the top) and the resilience of supporting high and low outside temperatures without altering much the interior; consider that the organs on your body are fine-tuned to a specific temperature, they can only perform in between 35 to 38 degrees Celsius, quite a narrow range when you consider that the long-term habitable areas of our planet vary from -40C to +45C. The water inside us ensures that our bodies stay in the healthy range of 35 to 38 degrees, else we'll die. Indeed water is a very mysterious element, the only element that expands when it cools, and also the only element that we just cannot compress. And why in the first place hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water? Nobody really knows, but in doing so they enable Life for the whole Universe. Water is neutral, it has no charge, but it does reacts to electricity and magnetism, as it contains one area with positive charge and the other with negative, that's is probably why clouds can form thunders and rays are created during storms. Was Jesus baptism and his miracle of turning water into wine a hint? telling us that water is the key element of the Universe for transformation? Can we perhaps travel to other stars through water? After all, water molecules are present in absolutely everywhere and everything. When we look at someone, and we determine that that person is pretty or handsome, is our decision influence by the water molecules structures of both us and that person? Does our 104.5 degrees matches? Water is an inorganic molecule, yet the most important compound in the body, meaning we are not 100% organic, nothing is. We're made of water, hydrogen and oxygen (and a bit of nasty Deuterium too), and while Hydrogen is the fuel of stars, oxygen on the other hand interacts with everything and is very combustible, why don't we ignite? Could water be use as a fuel once we unlock its secrets? Why does it rain in droplets and not in a line of water, like a cascade? and why rain droplets are almost always the same size, no matter where it rains on the planet? Are water droplets the same size when it rain on planets with a different gravity force than ours?

And, again let me ask, why do rivers form meanders? yeah, yeah, we all know the story that the water speed causes erosion on one side of the river, moving sediments to the other side, etc. Possibly, but then why meander occurs when water if falling on windscreen? or through a window when it rains? And why the average sinuosity of a river is 3 times longer than if the river was running straight? This sinuosity of average is the number.... 3.14, the number pi. Is the water in tune by the vibration of our planet?

Credit: Structured water, what is it?


Jumping now out of the water, let's continue with what was happening with our planet. I would like to think that in the evening after Theia's impact the flag was raised, and geo, paleo and history physics started with the kilometre zero of the new beginning of planet Earth, with an age called the Precambrian period which includes in itself 3 Eons. There is no clear consensus as to when this period started, sometimes I read 4.6 billions years ago, other 4.5 and others even 4 billions years ago; the most common approach that I've found is as follows:

  1. Hadean Eoon, lasting something between 700 to 500 million years, sometimes I read 4.5 to 3.8 billions years ago and other 4.6 to 3.9 or 4 billion years. I guess we can't blame palaeontologist, given the huge amount of time that they're dealing with, but nevertheless it is kind of frustrating to read Science articles and each of them comes with a different time scale. They all agree, however, that this Eon contains the formation of the Moon and the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB)
  2. Archean eon, a lot longer, lasting around 2.4 billion years or 2 billion years, contains the formation (or at least the evidence of existence) of our magnetosphere and hints of Life. During this period (in the so called Archean Oceans) there is evidence of oceans on our planet. Pillow lava show that there were oceans as old as 3.8 billion years ago
  3. Proterozoic eon, lasted for 2 billion years, this is when the oxygen appears in the atmosphere and the snowball events happened, when the Earth was completely covered in ice

I'd like to think that, yeah, that the history of our planet started right after the impact. However, and as usual, scientist lack just that bit of romantic touch, and apparently the Hadean Eon also include the collision with Theia, in other words the total formation of planet Earth. They got it wrong, obviously, because the planet is only formed after Theia's impact. Anyway, we are going to follow this already well established chronological map of planet Earth created by Science, to find out what happened during these times, let's see if all actually makes sense. Before moving forward, I'd like to introduce you to a new concept, yet another projection in our minds of the fabric of space-time, a measurement that I'll use in all of my timeline diagrams: the Ga or Gya, which stands for "giga-annum" and it means a billion years, 10 raise to the power of nine, in other words a Gya is represented like this: 1.000,000.000 (that is 1 billion years -short system-, and NOT one thousand million -long system- years as I was thought in school, ah good old days!)

Okay, so let's start where we end up on the previous chapter, right after the collision with Theia, and see how water fills this chapter too. The first Eon of planet Earth is also called the "Black Earth" and it may actually make sense as seeing from space, with the Earth surrounded with a thick atmosphere of dark and grey gases, generated from an ocean of molten rock with no end that was covering the surface of the planet. That must have been quite spectacular, with the planet spinning so fast... how strong were the winds? Would any hurricane of molten lava have formed? Let's say just 1 million years after the impact, the Moon by then would have pretty much formed and from its early beginning it was drifting away from planet Earth. Now the Moon takes about 28 days to complete an orbit around our planet, but back then, 1 million years after the impact, how long would have taken? It is believed that it was around then when the tidal locking between Earth and Moon began to manifest, with the Moon, in spite of orbiting so fast around our planet (we don't know how fast, but definitely much, much less than 28 days!), steadily being forced to stop and start presenting the same face to our planet. It has been condemn ever since to do that, from this time until the end of eternity. Even if nowadays the Moon is capable of influencing the Earth crust and have an input on earthquakes, back then, 4.5 billion years ago, its influence on the surface of Earth must have been horrendous, with friction forces that may have raise waves of molten lava perhaps hundreds of meters high, right? Specially when the Moon was full, or did it had phases at that time? In any case, there would have been no chance to see it from the surface, as the thick atmosphere of CO2 and sulphuric gases would have covered the entire Earth after the collision. Just like the currents that we experience nowadays on our oceans or the ones that we see on planet Jupiter, there must have been currents too when our Earth was just an infinite sea of molten rock. It must have been colder at the poles, I guess, where the currents would not have been that strong and the rocks could start cooling and forming big island or continents, floating on the plasma state of our planet, the starting of the pre-tectonic plates. These continents size of crust, even though cool on the surface, where enduring heat from underneath, immense heat that eventually gave to the creation of the first volcano of planet Earth, it must have been quite spectacular, erupting among the solidified rock and ejecting / releasing the heat from within the crust

Where was all the water then? None yet. Presumably there was some water on Earth -1, prior to Theia's kiss, water that was part of the original formation of the planet when it was gaining shape and size, during the process of collisions with the leftovers of Helios nebula icy and rocky materials. However, all of this water must have been vaporised when the collision with Theia took place, bursting off the molecules into space, as water is a very light element. The fairly big pull gravitational force of Earth would have prevented all of this water from escaping into the vacuum, and in spite of the extreme temperatures of the planet, some water vapour might have been retained in the atmosphere of Black Earth, but nowhere near the same amount that we now have, so where did all the remaining water that we currently enjoy on our planet comes from? Our planet back then must have been a mix of Venu's atmosphere and IO's (Jupiter's Moon) volcanic activity. Both Venus atmosphere and IO's surface seem to contain some molecules of water; Venus currently has them in tiny amount (but they re there), and there is evidences that IO could have had them in the past, but after so many billion of years it is all gone. So, if the hellish atmosphere of Venus contains some water molecules TODAY, could it had contained a lot more in the past, just like our Black Earth could have contained? And not only our Earth has water, as we know it, the Moon also has water! It must have arrived there after the collision and condensed once the surface was kind of cold. Our minds cannot properly visualise high temperatures, like those on the surface of the Sun, and water molecules together on the same environment, but maybe we're wrong: water is a very resilience element and it does exist in the form on ice at whichever low temperature you want to think of; can it also exist in the form of vapour to whichever high temperature you want to think of? If so, probably most of the water was on Earth -1 surface as part of his growing acquisition material process during the formation, and Theia just brought extra water and iron....together with a heat that will last for billions of years, locked in the interior of our planet

Below, a timeline I've developed that illustrates the periods created by Palaeontology together with the events and hypothetical circumstances that happened on our beloved planet. If you happen to remove any one of these early events....will Life still exist on our planet?


There are 3 hypothesis that aim to explain the origin of water on planet Earth:

  • Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), it is called late not because there was an earlier one, but because it seems to have occurred kind of late in the development of the solar system, when the planets were already formed. There is evidence in Mercury, in our Moon and in Mars that at around 4 billions years ago, and for the space of about 300 million years, they were subject to lots of impacts of comets and asteroids, surely not one every minute, like you see on the movies, but one every few hundred years or so, kind of a constant rate that left the scars and craters that we can see on their surfaces today. The idea is that these objects that were impacting were composed mostly of ice, water, and that they came from the outer solar system when we know water seems to be plentiful, around the Kuiper belt. Hello? First of all, it seems the water in the Kuiper Belt is "heavy water", formed with deuterium instead of hydrogen (adds an extra neutron to the nucleus), but anyway, how did they manage to bypass as they were entering into the inner solar system the forces of Saturn, and in particular Jupiter, gravitational fields? The massive role of Jupiter in relation to Life is to actually protect the inner rocky planets from impacts, we all know what Jupiter did to Shoemaker-Levi back in 1994, and it did it again with another comet in 2009. So, how come so many comets were able to completely bypass Jupiter's attraction and deliver water to Earth? And if Earth is estimated to have 1.3 billions cubit meters of water, the same amount must have been delivery in proportion to their sizes, to Mars, Venus, our Moon and even Mercury. Some scientists literally say not to blame the asteroids for the late heavy bombardment, but then again asteroids are the only ones who could have carried water to Earth. Something beyond the orbit of Jupiter would have contained heavy water or would have been sucked by Jupiter's pull. If we estimate that the LHB lasted around 300 millions years and that the Earth was subjected to an impact per 100 years, we can actually calculate the size of the comets in order to account for all the water in the planet:
    • 1,300 million cubit meters of water / 300 million that lasted LHB = the planet was getting 4.3 million cubit water per million of years. So we deduce from this that for every 100 years the planet was getting 4,300 cubit meters of water....ahem.... that equals to a 4.3 Tones meteor every 100 years!!! insane!!! The meteor that blasted the dinosaurs had a diameter of 10 to 15 km... in comparison one of the meteors that were given water to Earth would have had a diameter of 4.3 km... double that when we consider that the vast majority of the comets we see nowadays are composed 50% of water, so yeah, a 8.6 km asteroid hitting every 100 years, maybe even bigger if we consider that materials like iron were also delivered to the surface at that time. A 500km wide asteroid impact would have vaporise all the water, no doubt about it, only superheated bedrock would be left behind a month after such an impact. Not a chance for Life at all... I just cannot understand how such big asteroids, if they ever impacted Earth, could have escaped Jupiter's pull and reach us. Research shows that the Kuiper belt must have had many million more comets that it currently has, where are the missing ones? Did the leave when a passing star went to close to our sun? Or did they slam into the inner planets? Kuiper belt grains and dust is still bombardment the inner solar system. At the time of the LHB, there were 500 miles an hour hurricanes due to the rapid rotation of our planet, what a sight that would have been: a 500 miles an hour hurricane smashed by the impact of 10 km asteroid
  • Mantle Hydrogen Generator (MHG); there was not a nomenclature for this effect, so I just make the "Mantle Hydrogen Generator" or MHG. The theory goes that, being the most abundant element of the Universe, there was hydrogen too on our early Earth, compacted on its liquid form and that we can still find it nowadays when digging deep into our planet crust. This hydrogen (H), when compacted under the tremendous pressure on Earth's crust, and perhaps stress too by the influence of the strong tidal forces of the early moon, reacted with the oxygen kept in the silicates of the rocks, creating water as a result. This might explain why water is always on the planet not matter how deep you dig, it looks like is coming from the bottom up and not the other way around. Okay, we might have gotten a few icy asteroids on our surface, but as many as to account for the 1.3 billion of cubit meters of water? That's the estimated amount of water that we have. One thing I don't get about this theory is that hydrogen becomes liquid when compacted, yes... but at a temperature of minus 252.87 Celsius, so how come it does exist on its liquid form when the interior of Earth is so hot? If this theory has some fundamental weight, then water must be present underground on every planet! And being a light element eventually it will go up to the surface, possible? Granite is the base of all the continents, is this material somehow involve with the retention or creation of water deep on the crust surface?
  • Prior Impact Water (PIW); again there was no nomenclature for this theory, so let just called Prior Impact Water or PIW. This theory stipulates that the water was presence on our planet before Theia's kiss. Nobody knows for sure, but is very likely that oceans were present on Earth -1; they were formed as part of previous collision of icy object and as the slow accumulation of water occurred in relation with the planet mass growth. Essentially, this theory removes the existence of LHB and indicates that the bombardment of icy objects carrying the water element occurred during the formation of the planet, as it is expected because, yes, the planet is being formed and we are still on the early stages, so plenty of material around the solar system to form a planet. Just imagine that the asteroids belt all of the sudden could overcome the force of Jupiter and finally merge into a planet/proto-planet, will it have oceans? The asteroids on that belt have plenty of water already. Will they really have oceans if a moon like, let's say Europa, so full of water, was able to join the planet too? It is possible that our early Earth was just like that, a planet to be full of oceans, and probably Theia had oceans too. After the impact all that water vaporised but could not escape the gravitational force of our planet, and eventually condensate in rain and began to flood the surface. Just imagine before the rain happened, when the surface was a pure ocean of magma: the atmosphere must have been tremendously huge, with a few kilometres high, in order to be thick enough to contain all that primitive water. Jack Hills, in Wester Australia, is where Zircon crystal have been found dated 4.4 billions years ago. These crystal are formed when molten rock get solidified, and it happens that these crystal seems to have been solidifies very rapidly, as if they were in the presence of water....an indication that oceans were present as far back as 4.4 billion years ago, right after Theia's collision and in time for the water of both planets to condensate and fall as rain on the surface

None of these hypothesis seems to correlate to the fact that we have 2 types of water on our planet: Light formed with hydrogen and Heavy formed with Deuterium, we have a lot more quantities of Light water than Heavy, but yes, we do have naturally in the environment Heavy Water, where did it come from? Was it delivered by comets well beyond Jupiter's orbit?

Light vs Heavy water. Credit: What is Deuterium?


Evidence has been found on another solar systems of LHB events, where a cloud of dust, presumably asteroids and comets, are circling around the habitable zone of a star. Is it a LHB an event that must occur in order for a planet to support life? There is no doubt that LHB happened on our solar system, craters in other planets are the proof of that, and that thanks to LHB we find elements like iron close to the surface of the earth, elements that otherwise would have sunken deep into the mantle, had not them being delivered once the mantle was cold and solid. These elements together with water are needed for the formation of Life, not to mention to support an advance civilisation

Let's take a moment to review our variables. In addition to Theia's collision, these other variables must also be met for life to exist:

  1. A Late Heavy Bombardment event must occur early in the life of planet, not just to deliver water but heavy metals to the surface too, this is to empower bio-chemistry, otherwise, on a melted surface planet, those metals essential for life will sink to the core
  2. The LHB has to deliver lots of water, to cover the surface of the planet up to 75%
  3. The LHB has to deliver useful bio-chemical components so that they are in the surface of the planet and can be used for chemical reactions; okay this is similar to point 1 but with a slight twist: the asteroid hitting the planet HAVE to BE composed on these materials
  4. Tectonic plates must exist, in order to account for regular change of climates that will drive the evolution of life. Is there are no tectonics plates then the deserts will be deserts forever and life will be stack to algae form, most likely, and will live in such a state forever ever after: no changes in conditions means life is not force to evolve

To conclude, we got kind of valid theories that attempt to explain why there is water on our planet, but none of them is solid. I guess the answer is a combination of all these theories together, but then again all of these concepts and arguments have holes, questions and doubts that make them just like water: impossible to hold in your hand on its liquid form



Astronomers detect large amounts of oxygen in ancient star's atmosphere https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200123152540.htm 

What is the structure of a water molecule? http://www.iapws.org/faq1/molecule.html

When and where did Earth get its oxygen? https://earthsky.org/earth/when-where-earths-o2-oxygen-rise-began

Unusual properties of water https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules

Hadean Eon, the formation of Earth https://earthhow.com/hadean-eon/ 

Hadean Eon https://www.britannica.com/science/Hadean-Eon 

The origins for Life raises major planetary puzzles https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/life-unbounded/early-origins-for-life-raises-major-planetary-puzzles/

Tidal misconceptions https://www.lockhaven.edu/~dsimanek/scenario/tides.htm

Study suggests hydrogen, oxygen, water and carbon dioxide generated in Earth's mantle https://phys.org/news/2017-10-hydrogen-oxygen-carbon-dioxide-earth.html

A huge hydrogen generator at the Earth's core-mantle boundary https://phys.org/news/2017-11-huge-hydrogen-earth-core-mantle-boundary.html

Huge amount of water in Earth's mantle https://sureshemre.wordpress.com/2014/05/04/huge-amount-of-water-in-earths-mantle/

Planet Earth makes its own water from scratch deep in the mantle https://www.newscientist.com/article/2119475-planet-earth-makes-its-own-water-from-scratch-deep-in-the-mantle/

Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments  https://www.pnas.org/content/113/39/10802

The Late Heavy Bombardment: a violent assault on young Earth  https://www.space.com/36661-late-heavy-bombardment.html

The origin of Oxygen in Earth's Atmosphere https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/origin-of-oxygen-in-atmosphere/

Geological history of Earth  https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Geological_history_of_Earth

Earth's Facts https://facts.net/nature/universe/earth-facts 

Two types of Natural Water https://steemit.com/health/@alkemix/two-types-of-natural-water-which-one-is-good-for-your-health 

A meandering tale: the truth about pi and rivers https://www.theguardian.com/science/alexs-adventures-in-numberland/2015/mar/14/pi-day-2015-pi-rivers-truth-grime

New date for 'Late Heavy Bombardment' may change life's timeline on Earth https://astronomy.com/news/2019/08/new-date-for-late-heavy-bombardment-may-change-lifes-timeline-on-earth



3. The spark of Life - 500 million years ago to 2 million years ago

In this chapter we'll try to understand how Life came about to materialise on our planet. We have now seen all the really bizarre (Theia's collision with all its variables?) and strange circumstances (a stable Sun, Jupiter to protect us, our planet position in the Habitable Zone?) that make our planet hospitable for Life.... let me just rephrase that: that make our planet "suitable" for Life, far away from hospitable as we'll see now: Life is indeed a chemical reaction with all the potential to annihilate itself

This chapter covers the span of our Earth from 500 million to 2 million years ago, but as we know Life emerged in our planet as far back as 3.5 billion years ago, fossilised bacteria found in Western Australia indicate that, though there is not yet a consensus by scientists in the specific times as to when Life really started, they all agree that it emerged pretty quickly after the formation of our planet. I want to explore in this chapter the jump needed for a chemical reaction to be alive, and then all the number of extinctions and ups and downs that Life has endured on this planet, in order to understand how come that we are here. So, yes, let's have another long cup of tea with this chapter!

We have already gone through the lots of variables, conditions and events that needed to have occurred in the past so that Life could even have a chance to exist. All of these variables do challenge the Laws of Probabilities. Are we a cosmic accident? What are the changes of all of these circumstances (Theia, the magnetic field, the Moon, the Late Heavy Bombardment, etc) happening on another planet? Would Life had evolved if one of these variables was altered? Of course not, all of these events are absolutely critical for the growth and flourish of Life on our planet. Let's say, if you remove the Magnetic Field (not enough nickel on the core could do it) then that's it: bye bye Life. Planet Earth will be flooded in deadly radiation from the Sun and break any DNA on the surface, no chance for complex bacteria to evolve into a forest for example. If you remove the LHB, then there won't be enough water and definitely not enough materials like Carbon or Zinc to kick start Life on the surface of planet Earth. Life indeed did emerge from non-living ingredients

We stick to the facts: the oldest fossils on Earth was found to be 3.5 billion years ago. Life must have started not long after Theia and the Late Heavy Bombardment, when the oceans must have just been formed and chemistry reactions had a chance to develop undisrupted. Life is nothing more than a chemical reaction involving Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, together with Sulphur and Phosphorus in what is called the 6 Building Blocks of Life or CNOHPS. Of all these elements (two of which we know compose water) Carbon is indeed the signature of Life and an absolutely essential ingredient of it. The presence of water does not necessary means Life, but for Life "as we know it" Carbon has to be there. That's right, when you hear the sentence "Life as we know it" that means Life carbon-based, which is the only type of Life that we know

Credit: Start of Life - abiogenesis hypothesis


As this wonderful video explains below, the key of Carbon life-based relies on its atomic structure. The fact is that, just like with the origins of water, nobody knows the root cause of the origins of Life: no one has a clue what caused Life to start, and how non-living materials became animated. Some people argue that absolutely everything is alive, and that the animated state is simple a transformation of the compounds, just like when water transforms from liquid to gas, in both stages it is water but only on one it can form clouds. Every living thing, after some time, become a non-living thing and so on, in a continuous regeneration of materials found on our beautiful planet Earth. Life is powered by normal chemical reactions, but how did all start?



Carbon shares some similarities with Oxygen, both materials are created by stars and yet both are also the ultimate Gods of Life, with Carbon regulating the temperature of the planet as C2O and Oxygen allowing the development of complex life forms. Carbon is a material very versatile, happy to form bounds and create structures like amino-acid, proteins and eventually DNA, and all these structures are supported by water, that carries nutrients and energy along the compounds. Now we need to put this into action: where did Life got started? Carbon and Water must have been there, but also some sort of energy to kick-start the chemical reaction. Nobody has a clue of how Life got started, of the jump between inorganic compound to organic molecules, but there are some theories that aim to pinpoint the location of where this could have happened:


  • It came from outer space; this theory claims that Life formed elsewhere and was delivered to Earth by asteroids. Okay.... where did that Life form then? On Mars? on Venus? All of them were subjected to the Late Heavy Bombardment, just like Earth, with the same probabilities of Life to at least get started. This theory argues that amino-acids landed in Earth, in meteorites big enough for them not be burned out completely when entering the thick atmosphere of CO2 and sulphuric acid that back then our Earth must have had. Comets diving into our oceans delivering organic compounds, and they surviving the extreme pressure of the impact, even in the oceans? Researches show that organic molecules not only survive, but they even use the energy of the impact to grow larger and form peptide, the building block of proteins. The LHB was a solar system party event, therefore Venus and Mars must have had them too. Still, this theory doesn't explain how Life started in the first place, did it really start in the vacuum of the space, bathed with radiation and with an average temperature close to absolute zero? Everybody knows that this is not possible, so if this theory only implies that Life was magically delivered to our planet, where did Life started, and why it did not originally started on our planet, which we know is the only place in the Universe so far able to support Life? To summarise, I think this theory doesn't hold itself at all
  • It came from inside Earth; methane gases, extreme pressure and certain amount of water are present in the Earth interior, and that could have been the right location where Life got started, away from the surface where the Late Heavy Bombardment would have made all but impossible for microorganism to transform to Life. Bacteria has been found deep inside Earth (South Africa mines) where they reproduce once every 1,000 years! I personally doubt Life started in Earth's crust given the fact that this environment has not change in billions of years, it could have been used as a refuge, not questions about that, but as the origin of Life? nah? Life likes easy things, like getting energy from the Sun, and only evolve if the surrounded are challenged. Methane is deep in every mine, why? it has been trapped from the atmosphere, they say, or does it originates from within the crust?
  • It came from the surface of the planet; meaning from hydrothermal pools exposed to the atmosphere. I find this very unlikely because there is no evidence of the magnetic field being formed until around the same time that Life formed, meaning that the surface was covered by Sun radiation which breaks down any carbon molecule trying to assemble. Furthermore, the Moon was still pretty close and the tidal forces on the earlier oceans must have been formidable, with water entering inland hundred of miles, distributing minerals, destroying mountains and flooding valleys. These massive waves would have destroyed any hydrothermal pond dared to exist close to the ocean, and instead these massive waves must have taken all minerals from land and bust them into the oceans. With the Moon still so close, gigantic earthquakes must have been a common event. There was to oxygen in the atmosphere yet, therefore no ozone layer existed capable of absorbing the ultraviolet light energy beams
  • It came from the bottom of the ocean; this could be it. Volcanic vents in ocean floors are the prime candidates for Life to have evolved. The bottom of the ocean is where the minerals that the tidal waves of the Moon were removing from the surface of the planet ended up, and this is also where from hundred on millions of years conditions could remain relatively the same, away from the surface where 500-miles hurricanes where still happening due to the proximity of the Moon. If this is where Life started....then many planets must have Life too. Minerals have chemical properties and we still need them to be alive, they are part of the equation that results in the origin of Life

Hydrothermal vents, did Life started here? Credit: Evidence of Hadean Eon Life

For a period of 3 billion years only single-cellular and colonies of these organisms populated the Earth. We are going to assume that Life formed first at the bottom of the ocean, I personally believe this is the most plausible option. Life does not change unless forced to, and here comes the change when after million of years the oceans where Life was were receding due to tectonic planets. Sunlight began to hit these organisms and they develop the real engine of Life: photosynthesis, they started to harvest the energy from the Sun rather than from volcanic vents, producing oxygen as a waste product in the way. But what about the radiation? If oxygen wasn't present in the atmosphere yet, there was no ozone layer (the ozone gas is created from oxygen when it interacts with ultraviolet light) and therefore the first organism developing photosynthesis would have been fried by the radiation of the Sun. How did that happened then? Photosynthesis developed under the sea, and the water itself must have been acting as a filter for radiation. Nothing was living in land until about 500 million years ago

To conclude, all creatures that have ever existed on Earth have the same LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor), a single bacteria, archaea or Eukaryota from where all other organism in the planet evolved, but nobody had the least remote idea of how did it happen, how all of the sudden there was a chemical reaction called Life where before there only was raw inorganic materials. Let's understand now how the planet behaves when it has Life, and let's investigate too how the planet "breathes" and regulates its temperature, because there is an equilibrium of which we really need to have a clear understanding. I've called this "breath" process of the planet the Greenhouse Effect Index (GFI) and I'm surprise the Science has not come out with this measurement before, considering that ALL the planets where we hope Life could evolve need to have a certain level of Greenhouse Effect Index to support Life; the initial GFI  that I've thought about goes something like this:

  1. Action GFI; the planet experience a volcanic eruption or is hit by a comet/asteroid, and that creates lots of CO2 in the atmosphere. The amount of gases expelled goes from Green (lots of CO2) to Amber (a lot more of CO2) to Red, with Red containing the most amount of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, including methane
  2. Heat GFI; Earth is warm by the Sun, and the surface emits energy in the form of radiation that is absorbed by the greenhouse gases and water vapour (they vibrate), preventing this energy from escaping into the space and keeping the planet warm. When an Action-Red GFI occurs, the Earth reacts by creating a Heat-Red GEI that causes the planet to be extremely hot, with many gases -including methane- keeping the atmosphere warm. With a Heat-Red GFI condition in place, the planet reaches a positive loop, with more water vapour being evaporated and contributing more and more to a high level of Heat-Red GFI of the planet
  3. Cold GFI; if there are no greenhouses then all the heat that reaches the planet during the day will vanish into the space at night, with no gases able to maintain the planet warm. Snowball events are a prime example of this, with all the CO2 of the atmosphere removed by cyanobacteria, leaving them with basically nothing to breath but the waste and poisoned product that they produced called Oxygen
  4. The levels of O2 don't affect the temperature of the planet, otherwise during the Carboniferous, when the the oxygen levels were 50%, why didn't it trigger another Snowball event? The CO2 must be the one related to the temperature


It seems to me that the trigger to a high development of species occurred right after the Cryogenian Glaciation (Stuart-Varangian), also called Snowball Earth 2, 650 million years ago. Under the extreme pressure to survive that the cyanobacteria at the time would had found, when all the sudden the source of energy (the Sun) was seriously depleted, they began to ate one another, to develop multicellular organism to survive the predation rate and... invented sex as a means to reproduce rather than cloning themselves as they have been doing it till that glaciation. Early Earth was brutal for Life, and for about 3 billion years it was put on check by the environment... but we all know that Life if tough.. and it really is! There are micros discovered on ice crystal left by receding oceans hundred of million of years ago, that when heated up again came to life! They were just hibernating waiting for conditions to be good again to reproduce, how amazing is that? Life can survive millions of years frozen in salt. Life did work its way through, persisting and slowly changing the atmosphere and a complete geo-biotransformation the planet head to toe, pumping oxygen into the atmosphere and creating the first ever... ice! First ice ever since Theia's kiss. What happens thereafter is a roller-coaster and Life vs Extinction, random extinctions based in either external factors or by the composition of our atmosphere until finally (or at least for now) a fine-tuned equilibrium has been reached, but oh boy! It has been hard, and at any time disaster can strike again and push all Life against the cliff of extinction. No wonder that we have evolved to be so aggressive to one another, it is encoded on our genes after so many stressed times lived. We've been getting lucky so so so so so many times. We are here simply because we are lucky. We are at the end of a change of random events that could have played either way!

Life vs Extinction

I have finally removed this section and formed a separated article from it, it was growing at an inside rate so I thought it was best to treat this subject of Life versus Extinction on a totally separated link, to easy my logistic and research, and ultimately to facilitate the reading of this article. Click her to read this section of Life vs Extinction, such a great battle it is!

To be honest, it is important that you read this section, or at least have a look at it, in order to comprehend the scale of time that we are talking about and the incredibly huge number of creatures that have populated this planet, our Earth, home too to every single one of them. In our quest to find the answer of "Why are we here?" inevitable we also need to ask ourselves why were all these creatures here, and now all gone for good. Were they a temporarily bridge of evolution towards us? If so, it seems to me a very erratic and bumpy road to take! If for the contrary there were no other purpose in for example the existence of the dinosaurs, other than serve the cycle of the CO2 just like rocks also do, are we destined to have the same incongruence and futile fate?



Acid rain takes away carbon dioxide form the atmosphere and lock it in the ocean in the form of limestones, this process is called weathering. Open sea absorb sunlight, keeping the ocean warm, but when snowball happens ice start taking over the sea, and it was actually reflects sunlight thus cooling Earth even more. Single-cell bacteria were the only things that survived snowball Earth... how? Thermal-vents must have come to a rescue; extremophiles where also living inside glacial caves. Cyanobacteria are able to change their DNA structure under extreme conditions, you can for example dry them for hundred of years and then put water on them, after a few hours they're alive!

The Sun has been getting hotter as time passed by, given more energy for every sun-beam as the million of years were passing by. Photosynthesis is the gateway to Life as we know it, by far the most successful way of utilising energy, and it spread out all over the planet. Stromatolites are communities of bacteria that deposit limestone to form structures; stromatolites contains cyanobacteria, which have learnt to use the sunlight as their source of food and energy, splitting water molecules and freeing the O of H2O, creating oxygen as a by-product. That waste gas produce by cyanobacteria, oxygen, began to rust the oceans. Iron may have erupted from undersea volcanos, and all the iron was turn into iron ore and the whole of the oceans in the planet began to oxygenate due to photosynthesis. The Moon was receding, weather patters began to easy, days began to be longer, oxygen accumulated in the ocean jumped to the atmosphere, turning the reddish colour of the sky into a blue one, and that started a dance of Life vs Temperature vs level of O2+Co2 that still last today, with many extension occurring on our planet. We are all survivor on these extensions and they are key to understand the force that drove Life to evolve and for all entities to be so violent to certain degree and eat each other without compassion: we needed to live

Reverse of the magnetic field, what causes it? Is Life at risk in the middle of a reverse flux? Once every 200,000 years the flip occurs, and lots of radiation.  goes into the surface at that time. The Inner Core, hotter than the outer, is solid. Does the centre of the Earth function as a massive nuclear reactor? Do we have Uranium and Plutonium inside? Could Jupiter have them too? That gigantic planet generates twice as much radiation as it receives from the Sun. The Ort Cloud contains around 1 million comets, all on a very nestable orbit



Precambrian https://www.britannica.com/science/Precambrian

Introduction to the Cyanobacteria https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/cyanointro.html

The History of Life on Earth https://www.astro.indiana.edu/gsimonel/build/History_of_Life.pdf

Carbon Bonding https://www.britannica.com/science/chemical-compound/Carbon-bonding

What is Iron Ore https://geology.com/rocks/iron-ore.shtml 

Structure and Function of RNA https://courses.lumenlearning.com/microbiology/chapter/structure-and-function-of-rna/

Namibia: the stromatolites' last hurrah https://all-geo.org/highlyallochthonous/2007/06/namibia-the-stromatolites-last-hurrah/

The big five mass extinctions https://cosmosmagazine.com/palaeontology/big-five-extinctions

Welsh Cakes and Snotities https://www.sterling-adventures.co.uk/2009/01/14/welsh-cakes-and-snottites/

LUCA: Last Universal Common Ancestor https://earthhow.com/luca-last-universal-common-ancestor/

Ordovician-Silurian Mass Extinction: Causes, Evidence & Species https://study.com/academy/lesson/ordovician-silurian-mass-extinction-causes-evidence-species.html

New Theory for what caused Earth's Second-Largest mass extinction https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/09/15911-metals-extinction-ocean-oxygen-ordovician-silurian/ 

The Devonian extinction saw the oceans choke to death http://www.bbc.co.uk/earth/story/20150624-the-day-the-oceans-died 

Gorgonospia https://alchetron.com/Gorgonopsia 

Arsenic-Eating Bacteria Opens New Possibilities for Alien Life https://www.space.com/158-arsenic-eating-bacteria-opens-possibilities-alien-life.html

Protein Structure https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/protein-structure-14122136/ 

A Climate Catastrophe paved the way for the Dinosaurs' Reign https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/10/dinosaurs-dolomites/573286/ 

If CO2 if only 0.04% of the atmosphere, how does it drives global warming? https://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2019/07/30/co2-drives-global-warming/ 

The secret of how Life on Earth began  http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20161026-the-secret-of-how-life-on-earth-began

Origins of the building block for life https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1674987117301305

Precise radiometric age establishes Yarrabubba, Western Australia, as Earth’s oldest recognised meteorite impact structure https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-13985-7

Los diamantes que guardan el secreto del origen del planeta https://www.elmundo.es/ciencia-y-salud/ciencia/2019/08/15/5d5535d521efa0984e8b469a.html



4. Jupiter, the Great Benefactor

Let's stop for a minute and take a look at where we are now. Yes, we are indeed here, but why are we here? Life has now taken a stronghold in our planet and it seems nothing can remove it, it has been really persistent and stubborn, certainly determined, surviving to all disasters that the random breathing of the Universe and its events has put on its path, from meteorites strikes from above to massive volcanic eruptions from below, and many other disasters in between. And yet, Life survives, on this planet, our planet, inside you. But what about the other goodies in the Solar System? Were any of the other planets or moons able to host Life at some point in their history? Are they maybe cherishing Life right now as we speak? In this chapter we'll explore what was happening to Jupiter and other planets in the Solar System while Life was playing cat & mouse with Extinction on the surface of our planet

Jupiter is consider in Astrology the Great Benefactor, and indeed it is for our planet... kind of... Jupiter, due to its immense gravity pull, shield the inner rocky planets from incoming asteroid and comets, acting literally as a defender and protector of Life. That fact was proved in 1994 when comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 slammed into Jupiter; that comet was approximately the same size of the comet that wiped the dinosaurs. Had Jupiter not been there to grab the comet into collision course with itself, Shoemaker-Levy 9 would have entered the inner Solar System and, who knows? It may as well smashed the Earth. But Jupiter also has the opposite effect, and it can potentially send lethal objects towards the inner solar system, and Science believed it was Jupiter gigantic magnetic influence the root cause of the Late Heavy Bombardment event....but I personally don’t think so. Let's investigate about that in a bit. If we were to compact the last 4.5 billion years of history of our planet into 24 hours, together with some of the events that were happening in the Solar System during those 4.5 billion years of time, the list will be more or less as below:

  • 00:09 = Theias' impact creates the Moon, was Theia plunged to the Earth by Jupiter's gravity?
  • 00:12 = LHB starts, was Jupiter the driving force of the Late Heavy Bombardment?
  • 03:00 = LBH stops, was Jupiter also involved in the stop of this event?
  • 04:30 = First building blocks of Life
  • 05:36 = Oldest fossils of single organism
  • 08:00 = Shallow seas with single bacteria
  • 08:12 = Oxygen was present in the oceans
  • 10:41 = Oxygen starts to build up in the atmosphere by the photosynthesis process created by bacteria
  • 11:00 = Great Oxygenation Event (GOE) takes place, and the planet rusts
  • 13:00 = Snowball Earth 1
  • 14:10 = Single cell algae detected
  • 18:08 = Sex invented as a means of reproduction instead of cloning, jolly good!
  • 18:30 = Multi-cellular Life appeared
  • 20:27 = Snowball Earth 2
  • 20:30 = First sea plants
  • 20:35 = After 25 million years, volcanos start melting Snowball Earth (Yellowstone in action?). The reversion, the warm up of the planet, took around 1 million years
  • 21:00 = Excess of Oxygen creates the Ozone Layer, and the surface of the planet is protected against lethal radiation from the sun
  • 21:09 = First multicellular organisms, Cambrian explosion
  • 21:22 = First fish
  • 21:30 = First plants in land
  • 21:40 = First insets
  • 22:20 = First reptiles
  • 22:40 = Siberian traps, Permian extinction
  • 22:50 = First dinosaurs
  • 23:37 = First mammals
  • 23:38 = Asteroid impact, did Jupiter contribute to send this asteroid towards Earth?
  • 23:40 = First primates
  • 23:56 = First species of hominids
  • 23:58 = First humans
  • 23:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:59:58 = First iPhone

As you can see, the above table is absolutely fascinating for two main reasons: 1) not only it gives you a time frame of events that we can understand and easily visualise, knowing for example that complex Life (multicellular organisms) developed only 3 hours before midnight, Life indeed took a long time to evolve, especially when you consider that it emerged at 3 am in the morning and it was only from 9 pm when it got really complex, what was it doing the whole day long? From 3 am till 9 pm is like 3.3 billion years of single cell Life presence only! But the reason 2) that makes this table so interesting is that it contains the hidden message of our limited comprehension in the time scales in which the Universe moves: we understand the length of a day, we are "design" to live it, but we cannot fit in our mind the time of one million or 100 million years, yet alone 4.5 billion years, it just doesn't make sense to us, nobody lives 1 million years or more, no matter how healthy your breakfast is. We comprehend and grasp in our mind the length of a day because our consciousness has experience it in the physical entity that we live on. To answer the question of why are we here, does our consciousness needs to expand into other entities able to experience the passing of such great amount of time such as 4.5 billion years that the Universe is "design" to experience? I'm getting ahead of myself, I guess these are questions for the "Conclusion" section of this article

Let's start and see if we can shed some light in the mystery of our Sun... why does our Sun has an 11 years cycle? Every 11 years, the Sun's magnetic field rotates and flip itself over, the North Pole becomes the South Pole and vice-versa. Why does it happen every 11 years and not 25? When the flips occurs the Sun reaches its maximum corona activity, what is called in Astronomy Solar Maximum; or perhaps is the opposite: because it has reached its maximum corona activity, the poles flip. In any case, prior to the flips the surface of the Sun is increasingly dotted with sunspots or solar spots, cause by alterations and twists of the magnetic field at the surface level of the sun. Astronomers have been counting the sunspots since 1749, to determine when the Solar Maximum occurs, and hence when the North-South pole flip, and have come out with this pattern of the 11-year Sun Cycle: https://www.spaceweatherlive.com/en/solar-activity/solar-cycle/historical-solar-cycles.html

Solar Rotation by Latitude

Does the specific Sun's rotation has an influence on its 11 year cycle? Credit: Solar Rotation varies by Latitude

Astronomers have detected sunspots in other stars too, so this is not only a phenomenon that happens on our sun. When we consider that the Sun, our private stellar nuclear reactor, is a gigantic ball of gas that rotates at different speeds, with the equator rotating on itself every 25 days approximately (24.5) while nearer the poles the rotation happens every 35 days, we can come out with the following interesting calculations:

  • The equator rotates 0.7142 times faster than the poles (25 days at the equator / 35 days at the poles = 0.7142)
  • Every 160 times that the equator rotates, the magnetic poles flip (365 days / 25 days a rotation = 14.6 rotations a year, multiply that for 11 = 160.6 rotations)
  • Every 114 times that the poles rotates, the magnetic poles flip (365 days / 35 days a rotation = 10.4 rotations a year, multiply that for 11 = 114.4 rotations)
  • The relation between the number of rotations at the poles (114.4) and the equator (160.6) is 0.7123

Could the size of our sun be related to its 11 years cycle? During its lifetime, and before its nucleus run out of hydrogen to fusion into helium, and therefore collapsing, the sun will have lost only 0.05% of its mass, so it pretty must have had this 11 year cycle right from its birth time. Could this cycle be related to the fact that our sun supports Life in one if its solar system planets so well? Our Solar System seems to be intrinsically connected in a very harmonious way, and yet we know for sure that its beginning were very chaotic, a place full of collisions and destructions, so how it is possible that such harmonious order was rendered after the initial shambolic start?

Before we start doing a walk by our neighbouring planets, here is a thought about the position of planet Earth and its unique advantage of harvesting creatures able to formulate the question why are we here: of all of the immensity of the Cosmos, we can see with the naked eye craters in the Moon…. isn’t that weird? That we have a satellite, locked on one face towards us forever, so close by that it ignites our curiosity, and give us a visual hint in its surface and on our flesh of how the whole Universe is, a place of transformation full of violence raining from the sky. And what a strange, peculiar and outstanding ‘coincidence’ that is, that right now on our epoch (epoch where we can challenge the journey of why are we here) the diameter of our Moon and its distance from us matches by 400 times the diameter of the Sun and its distance from planet Earth, meaning that both spheres (the Moon and the Sun) appear to be exactly the same, giving us the spectacular and occasional events of Total Eclipses that since dawn of time have fascinated human civilisations

And we keep on scanning the Cosmos obsessed with finding exoplanets like our Earth, able to support Life, with promising data coming from solar systems like that of the Trappist-1 star (40 light years from us), and yet the majority of exoplanets we find are massive ‘hot Jupiter’ or super-Earth size planets which intense gravity at the surface makes the composition of molecules a challenge to host life, and that goes without saying that, at such high gravity, the core of super-Earth planets will be rock solid instead of liquid like ours, and therefore those planets cannot generate a magnetic field that will protect the surface from deadly nuclear fusion radiation, a surface crushed by its own atmosphere. And so we keep looking in the far reaches of space for a planet like ours, for a why are we here answer…and yet…right on our front door we have our twin sister, Venus, surprisingly the same size as Earth and also in the habitable zone (or it was 1 billion years ago when the sun was cooler)… and it just happens to be the least hospitable planet in the whole solar system to host life, our twin sister, Venus. How does it render our Earth, its extraordinary incredibly uniqueness, when the closest planet that we know of able to support Life is just next to us, and it happens to be a hell, literally?



Mercury rotates the Sun in a very unique way. It is tidally locked in a surprising 3:2 Orbital Resonance, meaning that for every 3 spins Mercury does around the Sun, it rotates around itself twice. Most of the data we know from Mercury is thanks to the Messenger probe that NASA sent to it in 2004 and arrived to the planet... 7 years after…..due to its proximity to the sun, its small size and great speed of rotation, Mercury is the hardest planet to get into. Yet, its surface is absolutely obliterated by craters, meaning that many asteroids and comets did not have any problems in hitting it, which makes you wonder….do all those craters in Mercury formed when the planet was in its current orbit, so close to the Sun that it makes it an extremely difficult target to hit?

Another hint to its past violence lies in its composition: Mercury has an iron core that makes 85% of the planet, way too big for a body of such a small size. Where is the rocky crust that is supposed to cover this planet? Scientistic argue that, most likely, Mercury was also subject to a planetary collision with another planet or object (let's called Maia, the Greek mother of Mercury). An hypothetical collision of Mercury with Maia, may explain why the surface of Mercury have elements that just could not exist had Mercury formed where it is now, so close to the sun those elements would have evaporated during their formation, and there they are. A collision with Maia would have ripped out the rocky crust of Mercury, leaving it as the ball of iron that it is now, and pushing it towards the inner solar system where Mercury is now.

During a year in Mercury one side faces the Sun once while the other side faces twice. One day is Mercury is really strange, if you happens to be on a spot in Mercury, it will take you 2 Mercury years (176 days) for the Sun to go around the sky once. Mercury rotation speed to itself is constant but the planet speeds up when it is at perihelion the closest to the Sun. There was no chance of oceans ever forming in Mercury, it just doesn't have the gravitational pull to keep the water in, besides given its surface temperature of 400 degrees all will be but vaporised instantly. In spite of its small size, Mercury has a fair pull of gravity (due to its iron core) that allows it to have an exosphere which contains oxygen... hello? Where did that oxygen came from? Impact with asteroids?



Always referred to as the "twin-planet", something really wrong happened in Venus for it to be as hellish as it is now.  Venus and Earth orbits align in pair of 8 years but then don't happened again for over 100 years, so last time Venus transited the Sun were in 2004 and in 2012 but next time it will happens will be on December 10th 2117. Can we terraform Venus? The Sun gets hotter about 10% every billion years, if the extra heat produced by the Sun doomed Venus a couple of billion years ago, are we approaching the fate that Venus had quite soon?

This video, like many of those ones in you tube infected with the media-hype type of scaremongering-cataclysm-coming-right-now-to-you effect, shows what might have actually happened to Venus, 2 billion years ago, when the heat generated by the Sun heated the planet, with together with volcanism might have contributed to the development of a thick atmosphere, and the evaporation of its oceans. If Venus was hit by that planet that slowed its rotation... where is the Moon that it should have? maybe the planet was a tiny one? and it was abvoserver byt Venus without a chance of it creating a Moon?


What this what happened to Venus?






Mars is red because is rusted, it seems it never experience an Oxygenation Event like that one on Earth. Yet, it atmosphere shows a thin green glow, latest observed by the ExoMars spacecraft, indicating the presence of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere. In Mars walking from the South pole to the North is downhill, as the North pole is several kilometres below the elevation of the South pole


This image below is a theorise vision of how Mars would have look liked in the past... and it may actually be very accurate. The Mars rovers, as well as the satellites orbiting the red planet, keep finding evidences of that liquid water must have flown and existed on the surface of Mars long time ago. Where did it go? Taken into account the small size of Mars, it could be that its core cooled quickly (also, it didn't have a 'Theia collision' on day 1 of its life, causing the core to heat up like it happened in planet Earth), so once the core started to cool, the magnetic field that protected the atmosphere weaken, and the solar wind become to erode the atmosphere of planet Mars, peeling the molecules of water and busting them into the vacuum of space. How much percentage of Mars atmosphere is been lost every due to the abrasion effect of the solar wind? If we knew that number we could estimate the amount of water that covered its surface once in a distant past


Earth GOE killed 99% of life in planet Earth, a Mars Oxygenation Event could very well had killed all life in the now red planet






Jupiter, the great benefactor

Back in the past, when Jupiter and Saturn felt into orbital resonance, they pushed Neptune out of its orbit, farther beyond Uranus, but how did that happen? And the Moons or Uranus, are they the product of the collision that title the axis of the planet? And from where that massive body that impacted Uranus came from? Metallic Hydrogen is the key to generate the magnetosphere of Jupiter



The Jovian Solar System: why Jupiter at all? What is the habitable zone in Jupiter? Why IO is so hot while Europa is dead frozen?




Titan is is like Earth at the beginning frozen in time; Titan contains liquid lakes of "gasoline" that might have formed by underground explosions, what causes these explosions? Why hydrocarbons are in Titan?  This is yet another fascinating moon

The Universe is hostile by nature. The bigger the planet the thinner the atmosphere, as the gravity is pinning it down to the ground, compacting the gases. No matter how advance or intelligent life reached to be, matter cannot be consciously transformed to light and therefore any civilisation will never advance a handful of light years away from their parent star, before they fade away. We are and we will be alone


Timeline of the Solar System

  1. A star pass by and move Jupiter out?
  2. Inner planetary collision occurs?




Explosions may have formed lakes on Saturn's moon Titan http://www.astronomy.com/news/2019/09/explosions-may-have-formed-lakes-on-saturns-moon-titan

Venus: the hot, hellish & volcanic planet https://www.space.com/44-venus-second-planet-from-the-sun-brightest-planet-in-solar-system.html

Mercury Impact Craters https://www.britannica.com/place/Mercury-planet/Impact-craters

NASA's photo shows Mars' Grand Canyon in spectacular detail https://mymodernmet.com/valles-marineris-photo-nasa/ 

Was Venus ever habitable? https://earthsky.org/space/was-venus-ever-habitable

Was Venus alive? The signs are probably there https://www.space.com/283-venus-alive-signs.html

Nasa climate modelling suggests Venus may have been habitable https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2475/nasa-climate-modeling-suggests-venus-may-have-been-habitable/

Does IO have a magma ocean? https://eos.org/features/does-io-have-a-magma-ocean

Sunspots https://scied.ucar.edu/learning-zone/sun-space-weather/sunspots

Relationship of the Kuiper Belt to the Oort Cloud  https://esahubble.org/images/opo0204i/

The Grand Tack https://www.boulder.swri.edu/~kwalsh/GrandTack.html

The Solar Eclipse Coincidence https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/life-unbounded/the-solar-eclipse-coincidence/

Ask an Astronomer http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/ 


5. In the wrong side of the Congo, 2 millions years ago 

Hominids Horribilis... that probably would be the name a future civilization will give to our species whenever it is on the future that they find our fossilised remains. If all humans were to disappear today from the face of the Earth, 10 million years after that (literately the blink of an eye in geological times) the only things remaining of our glorious civilization would be some shapeless four faces figures in Mount Rushmore and a thin layer of putrefactus-plastic-morbidus materials about 10 meters below the soil at ground level. That would be it. That would be the legacy of our glorious civilization in the future (satellites and spacecrafts are another history). If there was a global nuclear war today (a disaster that unfortunately is always on the menu), with all the nukes in arsenals being detonated, very likely the human race (so called by himself Homo Sapiens Sapiens) will be extinct in about 50 years maximum after the nuclear blast, unable to survive the gigantic nuclear winter that that kind of war will generate. Most of the species that now populate our planet (under the extreme conditions that we are allowing them to live, or better said, to survive) will also perish in the aftermath of a nuclear war. But again, as our planet has proven since its beginning, Life itself is very resilience and persistence, and it will indeed survive and outlast our self-generated cataclysm... is just so happens that we won't be there to tell

Our species, the Homo Sapiens, evolved in East Africa, around Ethiopia, about 200,000 years ago; that's about the best statement that all anthropologies studying the human race will agree. Before the 200,000 years frontier, and in between there and 2 million years ago, there are quite a lot of species of homos with quite a few missing links that makes the road map to our ancestor quite a puzzle, and every new fossil  specimen that is discover seems to be adding more complexity and confusion to the origin of our species rather than clarity. We are the only surviving species of Homininis.... all the other ones that had ever existed are extinct for unknown reasons. As you can see from the diagram below, of all the species of Hominids only us remain, while we have pushed to the edge of extinction the parallel species in the Gorillini branch. Just so you know, there is a difference between Hominid and Hominin, where Hominin are our gang (can walk up-right) and Hominid are the Apes from Africa only. A final distinction is that the Apes are... well, all Apes

CreditHuman Evolution [the above graph, though, misses the Asian Apes, Orangutan, from East Asia, it should be on a parallel branch to those two]


I always found fascinating that we and Chimpanzee/Bonobos share a 99.5% amount of DNA code. They are our closest relatives because all the other species or Hominini are gone, most of them were the bridge used by Mother Nature to evolve into us, but some of them who co-existed with us might have actually being exterminated by us, homo sapiens. It always torture me the possibility that we may be the "aggressive" species. Just like Chimpanzees and Bonobos, which develop very different social skills, behaviours and attitudes depending on which side or the river Congo they were born, it could be that, by analogy, we were also on the wrong side of the Congo, grew on an area of East Africa were resources were scarce, and we are genetically coded to be violent and selfish. Just having a 10 minutes lecture of World War 2 history will show you that we, as a species, are the most dangerous ever to have walked on the face of planet Earth... by far. Not only we kill other species, but we also kill each other, and even our ancestors, mothers, fathers, brothers and lovers: we can kill them all

Could we have caused the extermination of Homo Netherlanders and Cro-Magnon too? If so, if we happen to be inherently violent by nature and unable to control our emotions, like those cells that invented sex by devouring each other underneath the ice crust of the first snowball earth, perhaps we are not meant to understand the meaning of our existence. Perhaps the meaning of existence lays plainly in front of us, like a car in front of an ant, but we cannot see it or perceive it. Perhaps we are just a slightly more complex organism from others, with a keen attitude and a highly developed cortex tune specifically to kills and devours things. We are by far the most lethal species to have ever existed on the planet

And you wonder... why for example during the Dinosaur reign that lasted over 200 million years, none on these species developed intelligence? Why did Evolution had to wait until the Hominid reign, to finally push reasoning as the ultimate masterpiece of survival technique, why so long? And if this new technique of evolution called "reasoning" is such a great advantage for a particular species, just like the eye-sight was when first adopted by organisms 3.5 billions years ago, could other species alongside our timeline have adopted this survival technique? It clearly creates an advantage over others species, just look at us: we dominate the whole planet either you like it or not. Could our love for music and dance fuel the development to a higher intelligence? We have to consider the possibility that maybe there was an intelligence species at the time of the dinosaurs, able to avoid predators, catch prey and built in communities just like we and many other species on this planet do (you name it, herds of mammals, flocks of birds, colonies of ants, hive of bees... evolution does value unions of individuals to protect the species and thrive). This documentary below highlights the importance of controlling your emotions, maybe emotions is the key component that trigger the evolution of our cortex




In our quest for searching the meaning of Life and why are we here, we need to consider the possibility that potentially we are not the chosen species by the Universe to answer that sublime question, that is (of course) if there ever was meant to be a chosen species in the Universe to give meaning to anything. Perhaps Bonobos (or their successors) are indeed the ones who will gather a full understanding of the purpose of this Universe, and we are here just to lead them onto the path of preservation until that moment when intelligence sparks on their brains just like it did on ours; given their background of cooperation and non-aggression, surely they'll create a much better civilisation than ours. We are not the only "intelligence" species on this planet, anyway. As we all know, ants are very sophisticated, dolphins have languages, bees can differentiate between the concepts of "same" and "different", and even a humble fish, the pufferfish, generates structures that somehow have to fit on its tiny, tiny brain... how does he do that? https://www.livescience.com/40132-underwater-mystery-circles.html

Last time Yellowstone Caldera exploded was around a 4th July 630/640,000 years ago (Americans love fireworks:)), and without any doubt it must have had an effect in the evolution of humankind, devastating the planet and perhaps laying the ground for our particular species to evolve. Why there are no monkeys in North America? Maybe it was due to the opening of the Drake Passage, that cooled down the North Hemisphere so much, but I believe that the explosion of Yellowstone might have something to do with the lack of Hominids and Monkeys in North America, such an incredible event must have have a decisive influential effect in the evolution of many species. This diagram shows the estimated amount of magma that was emitted in the last Yellowstone eruption... enormous... but guess what?... it pale in comparison with the Toba eruption

CreditHuman Origins 101: The Basics


I wonder if the stress that early Hominid would have to endure due to the nuclear winters (mini-ice ages), lasting surely decades, could have been a factor towards the evolution of our species, towards the mutation of the genes that make us what we are. It would be interesting to cross-relate the amount of volcanic eruptions and stress that suffered the planet with the evolution of our brains, beautifully represented on the picture below. As we all know, evolution doesn't trigger unless the environment changes, therefore we have to assume that, in order for the Homos to evolve, a significant change must have occurred on their ecosystem to trigger the mutation that lead to the development of "reasoning"


Credit: Dr Sycamore


Flood Basalt Eruptions are also devastating killers, how did it affect the evolution of Apes? The oldest Homo Sapiens fossils has been found in Morocco, and dated 300,000 years ago, meaning we are indeed flipping old, older than the 200,000 most palaeontologist believe our species are, and evidences prove that for thousands of years Home Sapiens where living mostly in Africa while Homo Netherlanders occupied Europe, and touches and genetic exchange between the 2 species could have been possible. All changed, however, after the Toba eruption, as it created a decade or so of nuclear winter plus a global drop of temperatures for decades to come after that, pushing all species to the blink of extinction. Our mitochondria DNA shows that we are the resultant of a group of about 5,000 individuals who lived in East Africa around 75,000 years ago... clearly the survivors of the Toba eruption which occurred in the planet at that time.Those were the Homo Sapiens who conquered the whole planet, we are their descendent, the product of a cataclysm. This video does a great look about how the Toba eruption in the island of Sumatra (Indonesia) shaped the way we are and makes us genetically identical


Consider that this eruption, a supervolcano eruption, is indeed "one colossal catastrophic event", not the type of volcano that you see it "kindly" coming to you like the Hawaii or any other slow-magma volcanos. This eruption must have been from one day to the next, just like the drop of a gigantic nuclear bomb, the smash of an asteroid or the impact of a gargantuan tsunami: not a happy ending at all. Most likely due to to the Toba eruption, 75,000 years ago, the Homo Sapiens that were in East Africa abandoned the area in search of new hunting grounds. Taken into account that there was an Ice Age going on (most likely exacerbated by the global cool down period of the Toba eruption), most of Northern Europe was  covered in glaciers and ice sheets, with sea levels much lower than now, thus enabling land bridges for the Homo Sapiens to move out of Africa, crossing the Arabian peninsula and establishing themselves in lower Mesopotamia, where the first civilisation known to mankind arouse a few thousands years later: the Sumerians

Credit: Out of Africa Theory and Early Modern Humans

So here again we seems to have it, very similar to the Theia impact which enabled our planet to host life: a single event, in this occasion the Toba eruption and its thereafter consequences, greatly defined the evolution of this particular species called Homo Sapiens, giving them an initial point of stress that eventually lead to their advantage over other species. But as we have learnt on this article and throughout the history of planet Earth, the path to evolution is way more complex than the common thought of a linear ascending arrow, the path is subjected to climate changes and random Earth events, like for example supernova explosions. Could the Supernovas that exploded 2 million years ago caused the mutation that generated "reasoning" to the brain of the Homo Sapiens? And could have been the Toba eruption the event that ultimately triggered the expansion of that "reasoning"?

 Credit: Ancient star explosions could have led early humans to walk upright


Click on this link to watch a great video about how humans populated Great Britain, a clear and illustrative example of what was going on all over Africa, on other parts of Europe and the Middle East as the early homos were spreading across the planet, with the ultimate supremacy of Homo Sapiens, us, as the dominant species... undoubtedly the more aggressive of them all

I would like to finish off this chapter by listing what is the first most significant achievement of Hominid, most likely first conquered by the Homo Erectus. Agriculture, you might say? Nope, that is Homo Sapiens. The invention of the wheel? That is Homo Sapiens second best hit. I'm talking about fire: we are made of fire, our brains and digestive system cannot live without it. In fact, it is argue that the Homo Erectus, as a scavenger, found easy food on the animals that perished after wild fires, which must have been common in a increasingly dried Africa, slowly developing the "brain" of our stomach which lead to a neuron-rich brain that eventually sparked the "reasoning" survival technique






Mankind and its relatives modern homo species https://www.zmescience.com/science/archaeology/humanitys-relatives-modern-homo-species/

Homo Ancestors http://aquatic-human-ancestor.org/ancestors/homo-ancestors.html

DNA: comparing humans and chips https://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/permanent/human-origins/understanding-our-past/dna-comparing-humans-and-chimps

Bonobos join Chimps as closest human relatives https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2012/06/bonobos-join-chimps-closest-human-relatives

Why we're closer than ever to a timeline for human evolution https://www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2016/dec/22/why-were-closer-than-ever-to-a-timeline-for-human-evolution

Oldest hominid skeleton revealed https://www.nature.com/news/2009/091001/full/news.2009.966.html

7.2-million-year-old pre-human remains found in the Balkans https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/05/170523083548.htm

The Human Family's earliest ancestors https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-human-familys-earliest-ancestors-7372974/ 

Free-living African Apes https://chimpsnw.org/resources/advocacy/conservation/african-apes/

Do humans really have a killer instinct or is that just manly fancy? https://psyche.co/ideas/do-humans-really-have-a-killer-instinct-or-is-that-just-manly-fancy

Here's Why there are no Monkeys native to North America https://www.sciencealert.com/why-are-there-no-monkeys-in-north-america

World's oldest Homo Sapiens fossils found in Morocco https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/06/world-s-oldest-homo-sapiens-fossils-found-morocco

Supernovae 2 million years ago may have changed human behaviour https://www.newscientist.com/article/2093270-supernovae-2-million-years-ago-may-have-changed-human-behaviour/

Nearby Supernova Explosions may have affected human evolution https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/nearby-supernova-explosions-may-have-affected-human-evolution-video/ 

Cro-Magnon vs Neanderthal in the battle of extinction https://www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2008-12/presenting-cro-magnon-v-neanderthal-battle-extinction/ 

Food for Thought: Was Cooking a Pivotal Step in Human Evolution? https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/food-for-thought-was-cooking-a-pivotal-step-in-human-evolution/

Meat, Cooked Foods Needed for Early Human Brain https://www.livescience.com/24875-meat-human-brain.html

Sorry Vegans: Here's How Meat-Eating Made Us Human https://time.com/4252373/meat-eating-veganism-evolution/




And finally, our last section of this article, where we'll study mostly our brain and its circumstances. This is where the magic begins

1. Ancient Civilizations, our roots

Last chapter we ended up with the explosion of the Toba Supervolcano, 75,000 years ago. A particular species of Hominids called Homo Sapiens (humans) survived that explosion in the East area of Africa, but other species of Hominids also survived that cataclysms in other parts of the world. Nevertheless, it was going to be the humans the one who expanded from that moment all over the planet ready to absorb and/or conquer other fellow creatures. The oldest civilization we got written records from are the Sumerians, 3,000 years BC, very recently if you consider that humans were potentially able to create civilization since 20,000 years ago. I highly recommend to have a watch to this excellent documentary of the Sumerian civilization, made by Paul Cooper. Love the analogy that he made when he compares the hydrogen that gravity pulls to form a star, and then shine as light, and the humans that accumulate together to form a city, a civilization, and then produce their own form of light: written language



Sumerians used a unique type of cuneiform writing language, one of the oldest writing languages on record, but the oldest of them all is to be found in India, the Sanskrit. Could there have been an older civilisation in India, older than anything we know and which records have disappeared? This beautiful and magnificent graph below shows the number of civilizations that we know of, and the time at which they flourished; as you can see there were many more civilizations before the Sumer civilization, but only from the Sumerians we got written records:


  Credit: BlazesAndAmuzed

The last Ice Age ended up around 12,000 years ago, with global sea levels rising sharply shortly after that, and indeed having an impact in those early civilizations. The history of a massive flooding is told in the Bible, Babylonians and as far as the Sumerians. These early flooding that must have occurred could have decimated early civilization and set back the clock of "advanced cultures" as we know it. Just for the record, these are some of the flooding that could have possible happened, right across the location where early agriculture civilizations where beginning to grow. The Black Sea is a clear example, where a lake of fresh water (product of the melting glaciers) must have existed and was quickly covered by sea water, creating the Black Sea as we know it today: a sea where the amount of oxygen underneath the salty water is very low, clear indication of mixing salty and fresh waters. Are those marks evidence of flush waters rushing in from the Bosphorus Strait?

If any civilization where to live around the Black Sea Lake, they would have experienced the catastrophic event of water level raising as much as 1 meter per day! Having moved away from flooding risk areas, early civilizations would also have to endure sudden climate changes like the 8.2 ka event or the 4.2 ka event, both sudden drop in temperatures as a result (probably) of fluctuations in the sea currents. It could have well being the 8.2 ka event the origin of the Black Sea Deluge Hypothesis that created the current Black Sea 7,500 years ago. Below is a video that illustrate the flooding of the Persian Gulf at the end of the last Ice Age, around 12,000 years ago, where most likely early civilizations (the ancestors of the Sumerians) were inhabiting these fertile areas


Another example of early "advanced cultures" that could have been wiped out by drastic climate changes could be located in Africa. The continent of Tarzan must have been lovely back 7,000 years ago, a beautiful area for civilizations to flourish and indeed for the development of languages and exchange of cultures; for trade of products to occur there have to be some sort of communication, written communication and records could have been very possible and normal. Why we don't have any records of "books" written 10,000 years ago? Well, I don't think any of the books that we now have, kept under normal conditions, will last 10,000 years

Credit: Green Sahara during the last Ice Age

To finalise the exploration of ancient civilizations (for now) I'd like to show you this diagram where I've compiled together volcanic and climate change event of the last 8,000 years with the raise and fallen of civilization, any lesson for us to learn there? Sure, no matter how advance a civilization might be, it will always be subject to the random events that gave origin to the civilization on the first place

It is sad and ironic to know that, the last habitable place where Homo Sapiens set foot, was on Rapa Nui, the Easter Island, back in 1,200 AD, ending the journey of conquering the planet that that particular species of Hominid, the Homo Sapiens, started in East Africa 75,000 years ago. Roughly it took us about that long to conquer the planet, and is ironic to know that the writing language the habitants of Rapa Nui, the Rongorongo, has been lost to humankind

  Credit: Rongorongo


As this video below highlight, there are many things that we do not understand of the Stone Age: how could they build such megalithic constructions without complex technologies or without the aid of written languages or mathematics?



. Eruption of 535 ad, the end of the Minocians and a drop of temperature, the Aztec empire was affected too?



CrystalLinks, amazing website by Ellie Crystal:  https://www.crystalinks.com/astrobiology.html 










Black Sea Flood Theory put to test https://www.sciencemag.org/news/1999/02/black-sea-flood-theory-put-test

Post-Glacial Cooling 8,200 years ago https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/abrupt-climate-change/Post-Glacial%20Cooling%208%2C200%20Years%20Ago

Noah's not-so-big flood https://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/feature/noahs-not-so-big-flood/

Volcanic eruptions and European history https://www.eh-resources.org/volcanic-eruptions-and-european-history/





2. Language and Mathematics, the building blocks of humankind

Our desire to communicate is one of the key components that make us humans, that leads to the expression of our creativity, let it be in the arts, literature, music or architecture. There is a need deep within us to express ourselves individually as well as collectively, by the means of creating something on this planet (having children, giving birth of books, arts, songs, designs, etc) or by being part of a community (football team, clubs, an obscure association that makes you feel connected to other people even though you might never know them, etc). In this behaviour we are very much similar to the bacteria that colonized our planet (their planet too!) 3.8 billion years ago, when a sense of community and creation where developed, leading to the constructions of the first stromatolite structures. Bacteria, just like us it seems (no wonder we are their descendents), wanted to express in whichever way they could a higher level of themselves, to reach a higher frequency in their existence. They could only associated in colonies but we (a much more complex and sophisticated creature) associate ourselves in intricate communities called cities, countries and such. Is this tendency to associate in groups a force in Life? After all, particles join themselves too to become atoms, and atoms do likewise raise to molecules

And what are languages? There are over 7,000 languages in the world. All of them have been invented and all of them are different, but.....they all have in common one single thing, the objective to fulfil one single purpose: communication, in particular communication within a community. Language is a tool that allow us to understand and describe our reality, our perceived reality and the way we sense our Universe. The old popular saying of "What came first, the egg or the chicken?", takes a sinister meaning when we formulate the same question but about language versus thoughts, which one of those came first? Do we think because we have a language to formulate a thought? The answer seems to be that thoughts came first, as there are some thoughts which we cannot express through language. To express a thought you indeed new to have a language to formalise that thought, so we might argue that thoughts are there first, and that the invention of languages is what has enable us to create complex and elaborated thoughts. This magnificent TED Talk of the charming Professor Lera Boroditsky gives an insight about the critical influence and impact of the languages that we have mastered have on our minds. I love her ending of the video: what thoughts do you wish to create?


And indeed she is right: thoughts are the baseline of creations. Everything that you see around you, that have been made by the human race, the chair, a car, your computer screen, the window. All of it, all of our fabricated reality, had existed before on someone's mind. Absolutely everything is a product of the mind, for thoughts have to exist first before any creation is conceived. That bring us to the question: if all creations of men have existed before in the mind (as thoughts), do we also existed on someone's mind as thoughts? That of God or a Creator? Did mother nature thought of a tree before it actually created it? In order to create a human being the cells have to know where to place themselves, who is gonna be part of the heart and who will be part of an ear or a blood cell, etc. Therefore there must be some kind of understanding before, some sort of communication through a language (DNA) that we don't yet fully understand, else, how do the cells of your body have organised themselves to form what you are?

Leaving behind now my own thoughts, and regarding the concept of Languages, scientists have come up with two ideas as to explain where they came form, and these two ideas have lead to the creation of two different blocks or positions:

  • Linguistic Relativity, is when thoughts varies with languages; this approach is not very popular but it has some weight: for example, German speakers are potentially better at Maths because their language is more structure than others
  • Linguistic Determinism, is when language determines the thought, for example in Spain have the risk of being "male chauvinist" because The Kitchen (La Cocina) is a female word, and therefore should be a place for females only

The above dilemma strengths the fact that languages, or at least our current level of languages, are imperfect at the time of expressing our thoughts. We still need to develop higher level of communications in order to understand the Universe that goes around us. Animals who don't seem to have languages but yet communicate, like ants, do they have thoughts? How can bees create complex structures likes hives without thoughts, when we know they can differentiate between "same" and "different"? And how ants can possibly count their steps, without having a thought of the intention of doing so? And let's better not mention the puffer fish and its amazing creation (see picture below). Maybe in the future our species will develop a type of language and thoughts able to pierce into the true nature of the modular reality that is around and within us. Maybe we are limited in our understanding of the Universe because of our language, and hence unable to address yet the question of why are we here

Can the Puffer Fish designs and creates his structure without a patten of thought first? Credit: Puffer Fish Constructs A Masterpiece of Love - BBC Earth

And there it comes Mathematics to helps us. Maybe that is the language we have been waiting for to understand our Universe. Given the fact that other animals can also count and even create complex structures like we do, mathematics is indeed embedded in the Universe. We write letters and numbers, and somehow we know there is a distinction between them two, for example you can pronounce the number 3 on different languages, but the meaning is exactly the same across the globe, no matter what language you use. We can say that languages have been invented (I can call a "square" a cuadrado or invent a new word like ahjiur8y), but what about mathematics? Did they ever exist? If 1 + 1 equals 2, does this rule always exist even when we don't have the language to express it? The invention of the numbers is just a language that express Mathematics, so we may argue that Languages are there to help us describe reality (our surrounds, which will exist even if we don't) and that numbers and arithmetic are a special type of language that help us describe the connections that very subtly underline our reality

The irrefutable existence of the Fibonacci sequence in nature as well as the obvious existence of fractals (similar to that of the Mandelbrot) all over in nature, are an indication that mathematics are indeed the key to an intimate knowledge of the Universe. There is an order around us, and order that must have existed somehow at the point of creation, or does mathematics only exist in our realm of understanding, of human thoughts and consciousness? The Romans were able to built its civilizations, roads and marvel buildings, without the concept of "zero", yet Babylonians and Egyptians they both were aware of the constant number Pi (3.1418), and it seems to me that the deeper a civilisation's knowledge is of maths, the closer it is of obtaining a clearer understanding of the Universe and its mechanics of working

Fibonacci Sequence appears in Sunflowers, Nautilus shells, pineapples, the human ear and many more places.   Credit: Golden Spiral Symbol


 Mandelbrot fractals appear in trees, clouds in the sky, snow flakes, broccoli and many more places. Credit: How Mandelbrot's fractals changed the world


The precision by which mathematics can describe our reality are extraordinary, and the fundamental key to tap into the hidden dimension that holds the answer of why are we here



Oldest languages of the World https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/readersblog/whatsup-university/oldest-language-of-the-world-19460/

No language of thought http://www.fujisantrip.com/semantics/semantics-3/no-language-of-thought/

Language and Thought https://www.linguisticsociety.org/resource/language-and-thought

Honey bees can tell the difference between different numbers at a glance https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090127202103.htm

When ants go marching, they count their steps https://www.livescience.com/871-ants-marching-count-steps.html 

Do we need languages to think? https://owlcation.com/humanities/thinking-thoughts-without-language

Scientists sent thoughts from brain to brain with nothing in between https://massivesci.com/articles/mind-control-brain-machine-interface/

Mental Telepathy is Real https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/long-fuse-big-bang/201503/mental-telepathy-is-real

Ant Intelligence Update https://jonlieffmd.com/blog/ant-intelligence-update

The elaborate mating rituals of white-spotted pufferfish revealed https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4589618/The-elaborate-mating-rituals-pufferfish-revealed.html

A Few of My Favorite Spaces: The Mandelbrot Set https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/roots-of-unity/a-few-of-my-favorite-spaces-the-mandelbrot-set/ 

If whales can communicate by telepathy, why can't humans? https://www.theregister.com/2007/02/10/the_odd_body_whales_telepathy/

Social media has made Gen Z less engaged in the classroom, says math lecturer Clio Cresswell https://bigthink.com/mind-brain/clio-cresswell-difficulty-teaching-millennials

Fractals in Nature: develop your pattern recognition skills in the forest https://www.diygenius.com/fractals-in-nature/

Why these stingless bees build spiral hives? https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2018/02/australian-stingless-spiral-bee-hive-construction-tetragonula-carbonaria-spd/

Who exactly invented Math? https://interestingengineering.com/who-exactly-invented-math

Pi and the Golden Ratio https://johncarlosbaez.wordpress.com/2017/03/07/pi-and-the-golden-ratio/

Golden Ratio https://www.mathhappens.org/golden-ratio/

Emergence Theory and the Golden Ratio https://quantumgravityresearch.org/golden-ratio-in-nature-overview/

Relation of Pi to Phi and mystic numbers https://lefteris-kaliambos.wikia.org/wiki/RELATION_OF_Pi_TO_Phi_AND_MYSTIC_NUMBERS

The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Unreasonable_Effectiveness_of_Mathematics_in_the_Natural_Sciences



3. Religion and Believes, the intangible reality

After centuries of neglect, declining and abuse, when the last few remaining books of the famous Library of Alexandria were burnt at around 640 AD by Moslem, the Caliph who instructed the order is quoted to have said: "These books either contradict the Koran, in which case they are heresy, or they will agree with it, in which case they are superfluous. So burn them all". Exactly the same approach took Christians when in 1562 they burnt the precious Mayan books in the Yucatan peninsula, with the Bishop who instructed the order saying something like "The only book this people will ever need is the Bible". And we even don't have to travel that far back in time, to show the jealousy and danger that ANY extreme religious and ideology cast to the human race: when in May 1933 the Nazis burnt books all over Germany in bonfires, one of the many thousands of books that perished on the fires where those of poet Heinrich Heine, who is quote to have said more than 100 years before these events: "Where they burnt books, they will also ultimately burn people", and so it was

How many wars have there been based on purely different religion and ideologies? How many people have died because of that? All religions somehow claim to have an answer to the question of why are we here?, basing this claim in the idea that they held the true origin of God

Renaissance came here into place, and the statue of David of Michelangelo makes a turning point for human kind, before God was the only reason to live during the Middle Ages

Let's analyse the most popular religions that we have nowadays, in order of the amount of blood they have spread through their history.

What if we find (or we are found) Aliens at some point in the future, will they also believe in God?

  • Christians : the world was created by the hand of God in 6 days
  • Egyptians: the world was created spontaneously from the infinite waters of the enteral universe, called Num
  • Alaskan legends: the world was created by the conscious imaginings of a deity named Father Raven

If you want to believe that a mystical God created you, and that you are here in this planet to fulfil a divine destiny of peace and joy, that's fine and cool for me, but what is the underpinning reason for this divine destiny? Why is there a need to invoke a God and masquerade his invention all the things we do not know, like pulling under God's carpet all the rubbish and clutter that we don't know how to tidy

  • Reincarnation is nothing more that the Carbon Cycle in action
  • Is it possible that the constant changing of atoms has helped develop intelligence life in planet Earth? With Thea collision, life could have existed on a single continent, single ocean, and eventually the DNAs of these creatures will have disintegrated

How do religions address the concept of Death, we all will pass away some day

Great phylosohers such as Plato, Spinoza, Kant, Schelling, Hegel and Shopenhauger

Jews, Mahomedans, confucinans, bnuddishsts

Give the human race Time, and they create clocks to control you, give them the True and they create the Church to "guide" you

The illusion of reality and the 4th dimensions:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGguwYPC32I&feature=emb_rel_end




 Chackas, filth dimension?









The burning of the Library of Alexandria https://ehistory.osu.edu/articles/burning-library-alexandria

The burning of [Maya] books https://www.mexicolore.co.uk/aztecs/spanish-invasion/burning-maya-books

Book Burning https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/book-burning






4. Our brains, the biggest mystery

The second law of thermodynamics state that all energy dissipate with time, as entropy increases, that everything falls apart and complex structures eventually decay into nothing, yet the creation of our brains 13 billion years after the creation of the Universe goes against that law

The Mystique dance, is there more that we can see?

Finally, in this last section of the article Why are we here? we embrace and explore the human brain with a first question of incredible transcendent: could all be a product of our imagination? Could we be right now have our brain in a cube, floating in a liquid, with hundred of sensors attached to a laboratory, that simulates the reality that we believe we live in?

Can you remember your first concious thoguht? I do, I guess I might have been 4/5 years old, maybe older. I woke up and look at the light in the window and thoguht, what am I? what am I doing here? What are these hands, and this body? Befopre this my frist concious thogut I have been living on this planet kind of on auto-pilot, obviously with the support of my parents, but with no clear concious of what I was doing. My heart does not obey me, neirhter my lungs or my blood. I believe I have control of my body, or my thoughts but I really can't. Nobody has ever kill themselve by just stopping breathing, nobody can. At that point, I left behind my material life where my parents were feeding me, and enterred the awareness of a spiritual one

Why are we left or right-handed?



How do the human brain count numbers? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1sPBCxlDQQ Funny to think that we cannot compute unconsciously, we just cannot count in dreams for example






Why people think the world is flat (simplification of scientific methods): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IwJzsE8CvzQ





Cool Worlds: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGHZpIpAWJQ-Jy_CeCdXhMA 


A Crash Course in Particle Physics (1 of 2) by Brian Cox: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HVxBdMxgVX0

So what IS the Higgs bosson? by SciShow https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUnDsNL_5nk&t=1s

El lago salado de Mexijo demuestra de cuando el lagmar retrocede  https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-52560812

if an apple is an nucleos, the electrons will be a kilometer away, OMG! No wonder the Universe is soooo huge

80 different particles

We have to understand (and imagine) that at the Plank Time all the mater and energy of the Universe was on a single point.... all of the forces

23 after the beginning of the Big Bang, the Universe experience a process of inflation, an incredible expansion of all the energy. There must have been no matter at that stage, and just pure energy, and the following questions are to be asked:



If this star has dissapear without giving away any hint, black holes do indeed form very quickly and with an inside hunger for mass: https://www.elconfidencial.com/tecnologia/ciencia/2020-07-02/estrella-mas-brillante-sol-desaparecida-constelacion-acuario-phl-293b_2664143/

How many other people have question this question? Do a graph of X vs Y with how many times life has 'reset' during its existence, plus the special condition prior and around the life of Earth that makes it suitable for Life



As you can see, work still on progress...but so far, what I've discover, is that the reason why we are all here can be summaries on one single word: whimsical

The reality is nothing but the projection of the imagination of your brain... right?


A New Theory Explains How Consciousness Evolved https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/06/how-consciousness-evolved/485558/



5. Conclusion

Before I present you with any conclusions based on the above info and our analysis, please have a look this video 2 or 3 times:


What is this? What are the odds of that from happening again, or from have ever had happened? That event indeed challenge the laws of probabilities, there are trillion of factors to consider for that hit on the ball to go into the hole so many meters away: consider the weight of the ball itself, the density of the air (a drier air would have made the ball to run faster across the space, thus potentially missing its target), every tip of grass the ball crossed, any undulations on any centimetre of the land the ball crossed, the fluctuations of the water, the spin and energy of the golfer, anyone of its muscles could have play differently at the time of hitting the ball, dooming the trajectory of the projectile on a different direction. But yet, in spite of the myriad of factors, as we can see, the ball goes into the hole, as if pushed by its own intelligence of knowing what to do. Is this Universe tune for that ball to go into the hole in the ground? Is this Universe also fine tuned to allow for intelligent Life to populate it? The most extraordinary conclusion about this event is that..... it has meaning. The Universe has confabulated its laws, actions and reactions, where every single atom in and around the ball follows the abstract thought of "put the ball on the hole", and it actually does it: there is meaning, the physical realm surrender itself to the will of the thought, peacefully and calmly, to allow for the thoughts to be materialised and to create a meaning around that event, and ultimately, well beyond the meaning: joy

Surely all of us can recall similar fortuitous event in our life experience. I recall for example finding my friend in the middle of a rush hour in one of the busiest station of London underground, or dropping a glass on the ground and not even it didn't break but it stood upright.

If Life began with water, could the Universe also has started as some kind of water?  The 2nd law of thermodynamics state that complex things fall apart, yet the human brain was created, how is that possible? goes into the creation of the brain

What languages will humans speak in the distance future? Almost every generation that populated our planet have thought that the end of the world will occur during their generation or the next, but no further. Yet, the planet will continue rotating for millions of years to come. Will our minds finally be connected in the future, somehow, in order to generate a "global-bigger" mind able to grasps a comprehension of the Universe we live in? At present, we communicate through air waves, but can we possibly do it in the future by water molecules (micro-water molecules that bath all planet Earth) or radio waves, which passes all metals? or through a neural fluid able to transmit thoughts at lightning speed?

 Astrobiology is a mixed Science discipline, combining Astronomy, Biology and also Geology to some extend, with the goal of determine how life arouse on planet Earth, and the possibilities of life existing in other planets or objects in the Universe

An ultimate satisfactory answer that will fill all boxes? No, we'll never find it: each new answer leads to a brand new question, and the process continues like that until the infinite. This is called the limitation of the human mind

Why are we here? I think our little brains are not ready yet to fully understand the dimensions of that question, why we and the Sun are here. More meditation and evolution is needed, but indeed we can answer that question to the best of our knowledge as know, and I could not have found a better answer of this sublime question that a statement formulated by the survivor a a WW2 battle

The absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence, Carl Sagan

At first bacteria just duplicated and cloned themselves, but when their environment began to change, and specially during the Stuart-Varangian Glaciation (Snowball Earth, during the Cryogenian period 650 million years ago), bacteria began to eat one another in order to survive, they became aggressive, sex was invented and predator and prey were born. Not just the instinct of survival

  that renders the appearance of intelligent life in other planets really a miniscule possibility. 


Why are we here? Why were they here?

Credit: Georgi_Ivanov

 Work still in progress! Bear with me please, while I research and complete this section of the article :) Thank you!




Earth 'has been lucky' to support life for 3 billion years, study says https://news.sky.com/story/earth-has-been-lucky-to-support-life-for-3-billion-years-study-says-12177251


 Work still in progress! Bear with me please, while I research and complete this section of the article :) Thank you!



Earth 'has been lucky' to support life for 3 billion years, study says https://news.sky.com/story/earth-has-been-lucky-to-support-life-for-3-billion-years-study-says-12177251

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