Why are we here? Such a powerful question that, most likely, every human being that has ever existed pondered that interrogation at some point in their life... and died or continue living without an answer. The irrefutable true is that nobody really has a flipping idea of why we are here, what are we actually doing here. All we have are theories, ideas, believes and feelings, but there is not yet a real, concise and scientific explanation that pleased everybody and answer the question of why we are here. That is one of the big mysteries in life: we have no idea of why we exist, no tangible proof that demonstrates our reason of existence, we only have theoretical concepts of vague purposes that changes from person to person, and yet most people continue living as if there was no tomorrow
I am not pretending to answer in this article such metaphysical, psychological and in many ways deeply religious question, of why are we here, everybody for sure will have somehow their own personal answer, each one of them valid and with a fundamental weight. If you decide to believe that you are here to help others through life and find love, that's fine, but who created others? who created the idea of helping one another? and why do we need helping? If you decide that you live for a special unique purpose, a "was-meant-to-be" force or reason that will always be right in your mind whichever course of action you take in this physical world, either left or right, that's fine, but what force is this? where did it originate? and why do you find the need of having a purpose that guide your actions? The reality is that each person has an answer to the question of "what do you think you are doing in here?", but nobody really knows why are we here? Why we actually exist? Why can we ponder that question and why the sun is the way it is and not another? Nobody really knows, but what we can answer, however, is how we got here, and this is what I'll explore in this article. Neither do I support Nihilism or Existentialism (or Essentialism), doctrines that sustain that the Universe intrinsically has no meaning, nobody really knows. A torch has a meaning for us, right? A battery with charge, a couple of wires and and a bulb with a filament in the middle. You normally use a torch when there is no light, and you can easily explain the purpose of a torch and how it works to a child. Something that looks kind of simply for us, we humans, falls into the abyss of the absurd when we're trying to explain the same thing... to an ant. Ants are hierarchical insects who organise themselves in colonies, much like we do in cities, and we might argue that they don't have intelligence, but they do indeed posses a high degree of sophistication comparable to humans in many ways. Could it be that? Ants don't have the intelligence to understand how a torch works, while we lack the, let's called it intelligence version 2, intercosmos or uni-gnosis, to comprehend the meaning of the Universe? If ants in the future becomes intelligent beings, able to produce and understand how a torch works, could we in the future acquire that level of uni-gnosis to truly understand why we are here and the ultimate nature of the Universe? 65 million years ago, when the biggest mammal of the planet could fit in the palm of your hand, nobody bet that this small mammal will eventually develop in an intelligence species such as the human kind. Who is not to say that 65 million years from now, that small ant you can place on your hand now, will not develop into an intelligence species too?
In this article I strive to find out, first of all, how the hell did we get here. Perhaps, by finding out how we got here we can determine why we are here. Come with me, please, and let's navigate through this journey of exploration together. You are allowed to question everything that have been taught to you, and challenge every thought that your mind produces... after all, it turns out that not even your mind you can trust
I've divided this journey of exploration into tree sections, each one of them covering a different aspect but obviously all of them related. First we'll explore the cause of existence of our Sun and the birth of the Universe, then of our Earth and its unique characteristic to support life, and finally the flourish of our human race and the existence of the most enigmatic structure in the whole Universe: our brains
Section 1, our star the Sun, without it nothing will be possible
- The Primeval Atom
- The grapefruit fluctuations at quantum level
- The inflation period
- Floating in the magic of hydrogen
- The Helios nebula
Section 2, the perfect position of planet Earth in the Universe, the chain of random accidents that caused your existence
- The kiss of Theia
- Diving in the origins of Water
- The spark of Life
- Jupiter, the Great Benefactor
- In the wrong side of the Congo
Section 3, the abstract of your thoughts and the illusion of control
Religion and Science, reason and faith, are not meant to be enemies, rather, they are two wonderful tools that, like fire and water, allow us to digest the wonders of this Universe. It was a man of God, father Georges Lemaitre, who first proposed the Big Bang Theory back in 1927, two years before Edwin Hubble, though all the credit for the expanding Universe has always been assigned to Hubble, partially because Lemaitre published his article in French, and was not well circulated among the Scientific Community at that time. Lemaitre called the beginning of the Universe the Primeval Atom. Absolutely everything that exist on the Universe was first compiled (that not compacted) into the size of an atom. Obviously, the Universe must have existed in a very different state, not matter or space, to be able to achieve such a small size, to condensate all the energy into a zero-size state, and just to be picky, the "Primeval Atom" should be re-branded as the "Primeval Atom No-Size", because it wasn't an atom what was there at the beginning, it was a particle, a speck with no size. What was around that speck then? If we say nothing that actually implies something
The concept of the Primeval Atom means that absolutely everything is connected, all planets, stars , galaxies, and you and me, where once a form of energy coded in the algorithm of the Primeval Atom. This is fascinating, and personally to me it presents the following questions:
If the Primeval Atom was the beginning of everything, then everything must have an end, there is no concept of infinite. What happens is that we are too small to see the end, but there would be an end, just like there was a beginning. Everything dies, even stars and galaxies, the Principle of Entropy dictates that. So, how will the Universe die? Why are we here is only a temporarily question given the fact that, at some point in the future, nothing will be here. If there was a beginning, that implies that there must be an end or conclusion. We are not eternal, nothing is
How long was the Primeval Atom in that stage of codified information before it kicked the Big Bang reaction? Was it really energy that the Primeval Atom was composed of? We all know now that E=mc2 allows the matter to be exchanged with energy, and vice versa. This is why a tomato (matter) is nothing but the expression of the light of the Sun (energy). The tomato has the ability to transform energy into matter, thus to live. For this transformation to happens a medium needs to exists (rain and earth, in the case of the tomato). Analogically speaking, for the energy to be transformed into matter, a medium (space-time on this occasion) must exist. Therefore, could it have been the insufflation of space and time into the Universe the reason that causes its expansion/explosion from this single point of singularity?
What was around the Primeval Atom? Maybe more filaments of energy, all twisted together and somehow linked to the Primeval Atom. Science call the state of the Primeval Atom and its surrounds a "Singularity", basically a word to say that they have no idea of what is going on in there, no Laws being created, no Physics being defined, etc...but this is not quite correct: everything was already coded into the Primeval Atom, the Laws where there otherwise they would not have been created, just like everything single leaf and brunch of an oak is already coded inside the acorn seed
What caused the Primeval Atom to ignite? to expand? The only thing that seems to be missing on every singularity described by Science is the 1:1 composition of space-and-time that we perceive as our reality. Then again I ask, could that be the insufflation of space what caused the Big Bang? Expanding energy and allowing matter to be created as a consequence? And the time being a by-product of this insufflation?
- How can we measure time in million and billion of years when, during this time, the Earth wasn't around to compute in a measurable manner the pass of time? If time is bound by gravity, and the first second even was created during the Big Bang, which gravity must have been inconceivable, then could it be that time was really speeding up at first, and what we perceive now as an expansion of the Universe is nothing but the slowness of time?
Note that this picture below is actually incorrect, the expansion happened on a tridimensional scale, not in a 2D representation as the picture displays... if we happens to live on a 3D universe, why cannot we perceive pictures and data on a 3D scale too? Imagine the events of the picture below but in 3D... hard to get all the processes in your head ah? Is it our brain hard-coded to visualise data in 2D mostly? It seems 3D analysis doesn't come as natural
A human being is created from DNA, and a massive Oak tree comes from a single Acorn, so we see examples (the same pattern all over the place) of code complied into small things (like the Primeval Atom) that then later on become more complex systems (like the Universe). If we develop this line of thought and observation, we can see that the oak generates thousands of acorns, each one of them can potentially create more oaks. Humans generates other humans, which in turn generates other humans. This escalated process of creation feeds on the environment: Suns creates other suns, which energy feeds the oaks, which acorns feeds the humans. It seems the Primeval Atom was the start of a series of fireworks, with each atom bound to explode into a further fireworks, that fed and communicate to the others. Isn't this how chain-reaction radioactivity and molecular chemistry works?
A billionth of a second after the Big Bang, the Universe inflated probably to the size of the Solar System. It was just pure energy but no light, apparently in a liquid state perfectly harmoniously but with billions of degrees of temperature, yet no heat because there was no space to perceive it. Particles were moving so far in this "primordial homogeneous soup" that they could not assemble into any form (perhaps there were no particles at all, hence they couldn't assemble). Then matter was created... and its anti-matter too! Then both annihilated each other (releasing yet even more energy), but it just happens that during this annihilation process there was slightly more matter than antimatter, why is that? This is what is called the Baryon Asymmetry, where you find a lot more electrons with negative charge than electrons (orbiting a nucleus) with positive charge. As yet, Science does not have a clue of why this happened, why the Universe is defined the way it is? Was there any kind of intelligent design process, at the very beginning, that favoured the mater over antimatter? Like some experts in Astrophysics would say: these question really matters
The geometrically harmonious Universe that we live on must have existed in this coded version of its origins. Given the fact of the chaotic disturbances, explosions and up and downs of the Universe' matter after the Big Bang, and given the fact too that geometry is beautifully preserved everywhere (a spiral galaxy is the same here than half a Universe away), that kind of Universal Geometry must have existed right at the Big Bang state. Did the primaeval atom has an specific shape? Maybe that of a dodecahedron? That will imply that numbers (the face numbers) already existed in the core heart of the Universe at its beginning. It cannot be otherwise, else.. where do numbers and maths come from? Music and Maths at once? Because if you think it carefully, a dodecahedron is nothing but a mathematically representation of music in a geometric shape. Could a dodecahedron had been the ultimate shape of space where an infinitesimal primaeval atom resided? An if on the 12 faces of a dodecahedron, we add another dodecahedron resulting on a shape of 13 dodecahedron, and on that shape we add yet more dodecahedrons... would the rate of expansion of the Universe be the rate of dodecahedron expansion? Any process that begins requires an impulse... where was it? How many dodecahedron fit around a single dodecahedron?
Physics know very well that there are different states of matter, apart from the 3 classics taught in schools (solid, gas and liquid states), we also have plasma and a variety of states in between those four. In extreme circumstances, we need to account for a few more states:
- Under extreme cold = Bose-Einstein condensate
- Under extreme density = neutron-degenerate matter
- Under extreme high energy = quark-gluon plasma
Could the singularity of Big Bang be accounted for as a new state of matter? Just like Black Holes nowadays should do? where the extreme gravity, density, high energy and heat generates a brand new state of matter? Let's do a funny experiment and take the length of space of a meter, with a photon of light bouncing up and down the length of the meter, then throw that meter ruler into a black hole...the speed of light Mr Einstein said is constant, right? As always he's absolutely right so at first we should see the photon of light moving along the length of the meter at the same constant speed. Approaching the black hole, the enormous gravitational force will stretch the meter, the actual length of space, and the photon of light will take longer to move across the same distance... is it time stopping then?
And where is the edge of the Universe? All the evidence points to a Big Bang, the expansion of the Cosmos indicates there was a beginning. There must be a point in space where the Universe ends, where all the atoms cannot longer expand, where the space is being created as the atoms expand into the emptiness of the nothing, where is it? Where is that place, that ultimate frontier? What laws of physics can be applied to the very edge of the Infinite? Could it be that space is created at the same time as the atoms expand? We are indeed pretty, pretty much insignificant..... all the Cosmos has been expanding for the last 14 billions years and for half of that time we lived in an area of the Universe undisturbed by the expansion, the Solar System has evolved, just like our galaxy and our observable Universe in a quiet area, is all the Cosmos like that?
Leptogenesis tries to explain why there is something instead of nothing, why we live on an universe full of matter when the Big Bang and Einstein predicts that there should equal amount of matter and antimatter formed after the creation. I don't believe the Higgs Field provides mass for all particles in the Universe, because whey doesn't it do it (according to Science, of course) for the heavy right-handed neutrinos?
Still no explanation for Matter/Antimatter imbalance; https://crev.info/2019/03/still-no-explanation-for-matter-antimatter-imbalance/
Georges Lemaitre, el cura catolico que primero hablo del a teoria del Big Bag; https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-36469530
The matter-antimatter asymmetry problem; https://home.cern/science/physics/matter-antimatter-asymmetry-problem
George Lemaitre, The Scientist: https://fys.kuleuven.be/ster/meetings/lemaitre/lemaitre-luminet.pdf
The Tangled History of Big Bang Science: http://nautil.us/blog/the-tangled-history-of-big-bang-science
The Life and Discoveries of Astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt: https://www.thoughtco.com/astronomer-henrietta-leavitt-4160258
Why is there more matter than antimatter? http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=121
2. The grapefruit fluctuations at quantum level - 13.7 billion years ago minus 0.0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 seconds
Apparently, this is as far as Science can go, before this time all goes into the unknown. The Plank Time (10 to the power of minus 43, in other words, 42 zeros and a one) is the moment at which Science encounters the so called Plank Wall, a circumstance/situation beyond which the laws of physics (as we know them) break down and cannot pass the wall, therefore we are completely unable to explain what was going on beyond that point. Nothing make sense passing the frontier of the Plank Wall, just as nothing makes sense when we cross the Event Horizon of a black hole. After the Plank Wall and beyond the Event Horizon we find the same thing: singularity, in other words, a situation where all of the major 4 forces in nature that we know (and obviously their formulas) are useless at explaining us what's happening. These powerful well-known 4 forces are:
- Gravity, discovered by Newton, and yeah, fine-tune by Einstein through Relativity, where he merges acceleration + gravity through his Field Equations
- Electromagnetic Radiation, EMR for short, defined by Scottish scientist Maxwell back in 1865 (built on the genius of Michael Faraday). The force of Electromagnetism holds the electrons around the atomic nucleolus, so if we extrapolate this force to the HUGE, this will be like gravity as the planets (electrons) are held against the nucleus (the sun) of an atom, a solar system
- Strong Nuclear Force ;in the world (or shall we use universe by itself) of Quantum Mechanics this force is responsible of holding the nucleus of an atom together, representing 98% of the mass of an atom, as it is holding the protons and the neutrons together
- Weak Nuclear Force ;wait a minute.... strong and weak nuclear forces? separated? why not strong and weak gravitational forces too? This weak nuclear force exist in the atom, and it seems it converts Neutrons and/or Protons into Positrons which are nothing but Electrons with a positive charge; this process is called radioactive decay, which to me sound similar to the matter-antimatter annihilation. Electro-weak force is another force that merges electromagnetism and the weak forces, cool ah?
Gravity is so weak in the sub-atomic world that is literally ignore by quantum physics, why is that? All scientist suspect and dream of unifying all these forces together and achieve in that way an harmonious and unified explanation of the Universe, a compelling Standard Model that will explain everything from all angles. Good luck with that guys and gals! Just remember to have patience, our current human brains (at least the ordinary ones like me) can take up to nine bits of information at most, for example, if I was to tell you to look to this string of 12 characters only for 3 seconds and then try to memorise it: (FBIFTBBCUSSR), that will be very hard, but if I chop the info into 4 bits of information only (FBI - FT - BBC - USSR) you surely will memorise it quicker. Hopefully, in a few centuries from now, when our cortex evolve even more (of course, as long as the human race still survives) we shall be able to embrace naturally complex mathematical formulas, more bits of information and adapt simple solutions to the Cosmos riddle that at present we can only digest using computational power
Now, coming back to the 4 fantastic forces, consider other significant aspects of the Universe: the areas where these forces do take place and manifest:
Yeah, time and space create Dimensions, and you might argue that we don't need to include Dimensions as a separated entity, but apparently (mathematically) there have been proved the existence of dimensions without time or space involved into them. For decades scientists have been trying to "create" a Common Theory, a all-in-one mathematical model that could merge these forces into one... precisely what happened at the Big Bang, where all these forces where compiled/coded into a single point of infinite density. Given the fact that we are in this Universe which is expanding from a single point in the past, something or someone must have compacted/compiled them before, who or what was that? What caused the Big Bang? How long was it there before it exploded? I guess not long at all, otherwise the heat of that singularity will have disintegrated/vaporised everything
I love this well explanatory video from professor Brian P. Schmidt (50' long but worth every minute), where he gives a nice introduction to Dark Matter (slows the expansion) and Dark Energy (accelerates the expansion). It makes you wonder at the end what will win? Dark Energy or Dark Matter? in any case... the future looks Dark
- How the four fundamental forces separated? What supreme force could have possible merge all of them together? As far as we know it, a Black Hole seems to be the only entity capable of absorbing matter, its energy and presumably the forces associated with the engulfed matter. If space is being absorbed by a black hole, we shall assume that time is absorbed too! Could a massive unique black hole being the origin of the Universe?
- So we are basically made of random stuff! If we assume that the tiny quantum fluctuations was the ultimate cause that our galaxy is the way it is and not a cloud of particles unable to be formed by the pull of gravity (dark matter?), then absolutely everything that happens around us is pure random, just like when you let go a glass of wine out of the table, it breaks and spill the wine totally at random, just like that the galaxies seems to have been arranged in our Universe
- The Electron, discovered in 1896, is by far the more peculiar 'particle' that we have observed. Since then, scientists have observed a zoo of particles, more than 80 and still counting! They are going crazy smashing particles against one another and cataloguing the debris of the collision. Are they wasting their time? First of all, does any of the particles that exist nowadays in the Universe has even the most remote similarity (not to mention the temperature) of those daddies particles that were at the beginning and shortly after the creation of the Universe? If I decide to smash 2 cars together, will I expect to find "mini-cars" in the debris that is generated after the mighty collision? There must be another way of doing things, but then again... what the hell do I know?
Of Particular Significance, Matt Strassler; https://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physics-basics/the-known-forces-of-nature/
Fundamental Interaction ;https://www.britannica.com/science/fundamental-interaction
Primeval Atom - https://briankoberlein.com/2014/03/24/primeval-atom/
How far is the edge of the Universe from the farthest galaxy? - https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/
Heisenberg uncertainty principle; https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/quantum-physics/quantum-numbers-and-orbitals/
Common Interpretation of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is proved false ;https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/
This is it, this is the Universe into motion: whatever you thought in the past determines your future. In the same way, how the Universe was "compacted" in its origins has determines the way it is expanding now, the filaments over which the galaxies have blossom into existence. Apparently the "inflation" period (dodecahedron expansion?) started 10 minus 32 seconds after the creation of the Universe, after the first injection of space into the Universe, if I may say, otherwise (if space is not created at the time of inflation), was space always there? When does space actually come into existence?
Do not confuse inflation vs expansion, they are very different things. We may argue that the Big Bang is a wrong, a very wrong concept, as it kind of implies by the linguistics of the word 'bang' that there was of kind of explosion with light and everything. In reality, what it could have happens is an "inflation", an uniform and unilateral expansion of space-time equally in all directions and in complete dark. That explains why the CBM (Cosmic Background Microwave Radiation) is uniformly distributed no matter where you're in the Universe. This can also explains why the Higgs Boson causes the mass of your body to be exactly the same whether you are on Earth or on the other side of the Galaxy, this is because (apparently) the Higgs Boson is uniformly distributed and interacts with particles, hence given them mass, so your body weights the same here in planet Earth as well as when you are on planet GH6734 in the Andromeda Galaxy, as long as planet GH6734 has the same mass and therefore gravity that Earth applies over your body. This means that there is a common distribution of the same amount of Higgs Boson across the Universe, as it was a x-y-z canvas where each squares represents the same amount of the Bosson. Where does this uniform flat-universe of particles originated? Yeah, you got it, from the inflation, that by definition "inflates" something in an harmonious, equilibrium, symmetry manner in all directions.
I love the You Tube Channel "Space Time", with Matt O'Dowd. Many videos like this one are worth watching more than once:
- I believe this does not happen naturally. Unless is human induced, what kind of thing can you see in the Universe that "inflates" distributing evenly across its surface expansion? Normally all is very chaotic, and depending of the amount of fluctuations particles at quantum level, the expansion favours the distribution of stuff towards one way or another. Could a sort of lab experiment have caused this, inflation of a compressed energy point?
- What stopped the inflation? Did the Universe run out of the initial energy? Why did it "mutated" from inflation to expansion. Looks like the inflation was the 'release' of stuff that previously was compacted, and once free it inflated first and then expanded after, allowing us to observe the expansion of the Cosmos that we see today
- So we can argue that the 4 fundamental forces were actually created once the inflation period finished, during the inflation period there were no atoms that could interact with the forces, and all there was were quarks and particles separating their plank distances from one another as the space was introduced; separating their distances we may say by the primitive dark energy that inhabits the empty space in between the particles
- Could it be that all of this happened at once? There was no inflation, but just a cubic or dodecahedron shape of energy that all of the sudden (half of it or so) converted into matter, and then after this conversion/transformation it expanded. This transmutation of empty space into particles works well (right?) with the dark energy principle, as if the dark energy becomes white energy, a bit unstable and pop these particles into existence. And why so many different particles? When the inflation was happening, those early particles must have been smashing against one another, hence creating the zoo of particles the LHC detects nowadays?
- The Cosmic Inflation was happening at many times the speed of light. Was it because the particles where pushing one another and growing larger (proactive inflation) or was it because the space in between the particles separating them (reactive inflation)? Obviously, the force of inflation (inflaforce?) was much stronger than any other known force, there was no black holes during this period, neither stars formation of course
- Unbelievable short, the Cosmic Inflation lasted a picosecond, a fraction of a second
Cosmic Background radiation (CBM) was released when the baby Universe was about 370,000 years old only, that's the origin of the 1st light ever
If this star has dissapear without giving away any hint, black holes do indeed form very quickly and with an inside hunger for mass: https://www.elconfidencial.com/tecnologia/ciencia/2020-07-02/estrella-mas-brillante-sol-desaparecida-constelacion-acuario-phl-293b_2664143/
The Higgs boson, by Heather Gray and Bruno Mansoulie; https://atlas.cern/updates/atlas-feature/higgs-boson
Cosmic Inflation, by Karl Tate; https://www.space.com/25075-cosmic-inflation-universe-expansion-big-bang-infographic.html
Cosmic Inflation, https://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/topics_bigbang_inflation.html
Inflation for beginners by John Gribbin; http://aether.lbl.gov/www/science/inflation-beginners.html
What was it like when the Universe was inflating ;https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/
The great Professor Carl Sagan (his 1980s series "Cosmos" marked my childhood, thank you!) once said that "we are all made of star dust", and Professor Michio Kaku has said that "our destiny is tight to the destiny of the stars". This Universe is not ours, we are not the starring role, they are. This is a Universe of stars, they're the real protagonist and we're just the spectators in their cosmic display of their birth, evolution and death. And what are stars made of? From the magic element of hydrogen
The first 3 minutes of the Universe, according to Science, was a roller-coaster of activity, with the temperature of the plasma/energetic cloud coming down dramatically and particles being formed and assembled together. These first 3 minutes are called Big Bang Nucleosynthesis -BBN- and is when all the hydrogen in the Universe was formed (I guess it should have being named differently, to differentiate it from Stellar Nucleosynthesis -SN-). During these first 3 minutes some helium was formed too, so now we have hydrogen (very simple, just one proton) and helium (the second in the scale, with 2 protons) plus gravity, and it just happens that hydrogen interacts with itself and with helium, and together with gravity they form... you got it, a nuclear combustion: a star
It is really interesting to see and understand the evolution of any given star, as they are the ones who really rule the Universe, who formed galaxies, spirals, create light and give us all of the elements that form life and the reality as we perceive it. Why its life cycle is so precisely defined? Who design it? Those first 3 minutes of the Universe were absolutely critical, according to Science this is when matter and antimatter (or something similar between these two terms) annihilated, creating in the aftermath of the collisions the by-product of radiation and the particles of matter that we perceive today
Picture credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_evolution
Have another look at the picture above. The only thing missing is the time scale that identifies each one of the phases. The sections "death" only last an instant in some ocassions, while the "remnant" is for eternity. Life is ONLY possible around the stars type "Low Mass yellow" (our Sun type) and possible "Brown Draft" too. The other stars are too violent, too unstable and emitting too much gamma rays for life to have a chance to evolve to intelligent beings. Take another look at the picture above again, and notice that "Black Holes" are a consequence of massive stars containing over 40 times the solar mass. So yes, all the objects we have in the sky are different representations of the transformation of stars
Scientists believe that 20 minutes after the inflation finished (Big Bang step 2 started) the Universe was cold enough for hydrogen clouds to compact by the force of gravity, igniting their core and creating massive protostars. So this is when the first black holes must have been created, right? Incredibly huge stars that exploded when the hydrogen at their centers was exhausted, and the left over ashes that had been created (layers of helium, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, etc) did not allow the outer hydrogen of the star to come and rescue the center, supplying hydrogen to it. Without the hydrogen, without the energy to fusion, gravity crashed all of the elements and a black hole is formed. The gargantuan shock-waves of its creation causes the star to explode. This all looks very cool, with the only problem that this theory cannot create stars as big as for example Betelgeuse, which if it were to replace the sun its circumference will reach all the way up to Jupiter's orbit. How such big and bigger stars like that can formed when the minute the gas is compacted it ignites, and pushes all other gases away? Something is still missing in the understanding of star formation, but whatever the process is, it definitely seems to be pretty close to what scientist believe it is now
- Go and repeat the above process millions, literately millions of times
- You need to have millions, literately millions of years for this process of star-life-cycle to be repeated millions of times
- Eventually, a black hole will gather enough matter around it
- Eventually, the matter around the black hole will form spirals, as it orbits it
- Eventually, supernovas will continue popping up, disruption these spirals and blasting materials at random directions
- Eventually, this material again will be attracted by the force of gravity, and through millions of years will fall to form spiral arms around the black hole
- Eventually, a galaxy will form, our galaxy
How long for this process to occur? Well, approximately for the shape of our galaxy to form it must have taken just under a 1 billion years since the creation of the Universe, give or take a couple of centuries. After that time the structured of the Milky Way was pretty much defined by the hydrogen that accumulated around the accretion disk... but the formation of our Solar System was still very far away. Many more supernovas and supernovae needed to spark before even the random nebula of what it would be our sun started to form
Sagittarius A*, the black hole that sustains our galaxy, must have formed pretty early in the history of the Universe, for it to held our galaxy at the tender age of just below 1 billion years. According to scientists, the first massive stars began to shine as soon at the temperature of the Universe dropped, and the space in between the atoms, the 'fog' of the early Universe, allowed for the hydrogen to collapse and the formation of stars. That was as soon as 200 million years after the Big Bang, pretty much as soon as possible for Universe's standards
One of the many, many amazing videos of Manchester University's Professor Brian Cox:
|And here two simulations of how our Milky Way Galaxy must have formed. Be my guest and pick your choice! Both simulations are understood to start at 1 billion years old Universe and finished at 9.1 billions years old, just on time for our Sun to ignite, meaning that both videos comprise a 8.1 billions years of gravity pulling, stars forming and dying and hydrogen dancing|
|Be brave and play these 2 videos at the same time, is cool!|
- Why is it that the simplest elements ever contain so much energy? For example liquid hydrogen is use for rocket fuel, and its atom is very simplistic, just one proton, one neutron and one electron, the simplest form of matter yet the closest to pure energy that we know. Compare this atom with the the uranium atom is the opposite side of the scale. Uranium has 92 protons and 92 electrons... if with one-proton-atom we can create hydrogen fuel that allow us to go to space, how far can we go with a ninety-two-proton-atom? Are fusion and fission so incompatible? Why cannot we get an energy source that cycle in between the two methods? hydrogen and uranium?
- Based on the Stellar Life Cycle... black holes are the result of hydrogen being transformed and compressed. If everything come from hydrogen fusion, that means that the black holes somehow are the ultimate result of fusion hydrogen. It is not gravity what sucks all the material into a black hole, it is the strong nuclear force of the material that the black hole is made of what attracts the falling atoms. Could that be true? Black hole do have space, because they have a mass and therefore must have a space for this mass to exist
- The massive black hole of galaxy Holmberg 15A is 3 times bigger than our solar system: https://www.sciencealert.com/an-absolutely-gargantuan-black-hole-has-been-found-as-massive-as-40-billion-suns Undoubtedly, the strength of such gravitational field projected by this gigantic black hole must cause an influence on the space of the galaxy where it is, and therefore the Universe. Could the formation of black holes act as 'break' to slow down the expansion of the Universe? Or is the Universe actually accelerating because of a decreasing rate of black hole formation?
- Sagittarius A* is estimated to be 6 millions as massive as the Sun. No way such massive black hole created from a single star, the supernova shock-waves capable of generated a 6 millions mass black hole would probably have shred the galaxy apart! Therefore our local black hole must have been the merging of more than one black holes. Is that phenomena so recurring? Are we living in an Universe where really black holes are the ruling guys and not the shinny stars? Given the fact we can't see/detect them directly, there could possible be millions of these guys circling the spiral arms of the galaxy, slowly moving inwards to the bulge in collision course to Sag A*
- In about 4 billions years, if you are still around, get your shades and prepare for the collision of Andromeda vs 'Via Lactea' galaxies. Are their respective massive black holes attracting to one another? What has originated this collision path, and why hasn't it occurred in the last 13.7 billions years? Without giving much thought to that, it is obvious that both galaxies are been attracted to each other because of the pull of their respective black holes, the only guys with enough strength to move galaxies across empty space. Are we talking here about a new gravity force specifically bounded to black holes? If normal gravity causes the Earth to rotate around the Sun by "falling" into the space-time fabric, could these two black holes of Andromeda and The Milky Way by pulling one another by "eating" the space in between the galaxies?
Nucleosynthesis ; https://www.universetoday.com/51797/nucleosynthesis/
Where did all the elements come from? https://www.haystack.mit.edu/edu/pcr/Astrochemistry/
Blogging the Periodic Table, by Sam Kean; http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/elements/
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis ; https://physics.info/nucleosynthesis/
Chronology of the Universe ; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronology_of_the_universe
Origins of the Elements ; https://www2.lbl.gov/abc/wallchart/chapters/10/0.html
The Element Hydrogen ; https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele001.html
Why did the Universe start off with Hydrogen, Helium and not much else? https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/
Mily Way age narrowed down ;https://www.space.com/263-milky-age-narrowed.html
Big problem in star formation theory solved? https://www.realclearscience.com/articles/2013/09/04/
The semantic of the word 'nebula' can be used to describe both the death of a star as well as the birth of new others. Our Sun, according to Science, is a third generation star, meaning that the hydrogen it contains has already experience the interaction with at least two previous stars, now gone. All the hydrogen in the Sun must have suffered the blast and gamma rays flood of at least two previous supernovas or supernovae, causing it to compact and contract in the third generation star that is our Sun. The first generations stars were the first ones ever to have been formed, and all of them must have (being initially so massive) exploded into supernovas, leaving behind either black holes or neutron stars. Then the 2nd generations stars were formed from the leftovers of the first generation stars. They burnt much slowly but eventually they too collapsed or interacted with one another, exploding into yet again more supernovas or transforming themselves into white dwarf stars from which detritus our Sun formed, a third generation star. It is estimated that 3 to 5 new stars form every year just in the Milky Way, all of them being 3rd generation or even beyond stars
Our Sun must have been part of a Nebula when it was young, which other stars where part of that nebula? At present our closest star is Proxima Centauri, at just 4.2 light years away, but it has been the closest for only the last 32,000 years, that is 0.032 of the 4.6 billions years of age of the Sun, absolutely nothing! The Gaia spacecraft seems to have found so far at least 2 x stars that have the same elements signature composition as our sun, meaning that they were form in the same nursery Nebula. One of them is called "HD 162826" and the other one "HD 186302", the former being 110 light years way while the other about 184 light years away.... pretty long distances for our closest related sun-family
During my research, I did not find a specific name for the nebula where our sun was born, so I'll call this nebula "Helios Nebula" , and is a big mystery in Science, we cannot go back 4.6 billions years ago to figure out how many stars where in this nebula, where the gas and dust came from, how many supernovas where needed, any black holes around, etc. What is left from this "Helios Nebula", the nebula where our Sun was created? Go and figure, the time scale is enormous. In these 4.6 billions years lots of stars, drifting in space, have passed through our Sun neighbourhood
This video, which expand 10 light years only, shows the current vicinity of stars around our Sun; notice the prominent position of the bright Sirius at just 8.6 light years away:
The Sun has only circle the Milky Way 22 times since its creation. When our Sun ignited in the galaxy, the milky way was 9.1 billion years old, and this is it: after the Sun ignited no more hydrogen will come to its rescue, once it burns it all that will be the end of it, the life of our Sun is determined by the amount of hydrogen used in its creation, and in that sense hydrogen equals time. That also means that there is no more creation of new materials that can be "broadcast" by the sun, unless from extraterrestrial source (which probably will be older) all of the atoms that you see around you and in planet earth are at least 4.6 billions years old or older. So yes, technically you look pretty good for all of your atoms to be 4.6 billions years old, just imagine in how many "entities" have your atoms resided and animated before they chose to sustain your body and its thoughts.....do you hate spiders? Where your atoms perhaps part of a butterfly in the Pleistocene -2.5 millions years ago- that was eating by a spider? Could this refinements of atoms be an conductor to 'tune' the atoms and allows them to host abstracts thoughts, able to ponder about their own existence? Hummm, it makes you think
Okay, jumping to the unstoppable road of Science towards enlightenment, let's face now another big bump: in Science the theories need to be proved and tested, and the theory that the Sun formed out of a Nebula and that the solar system formed out of the cloud of gas around the Sun, like an accretion disk, seems to be a pile of shit, there are still lots of things that we don't understand, and a lot more research needs to be done in this area. For example, this theory doesn't explain the behaviour of hydrogen: gravity cannot compact it to such extend that it ignites, the hydrogen tend to expand (as long as it has space) when it is compacted because it gets hot, further more when it gets compacted it turns to liquid: why did it not turn to liquid into space, to plasma? There must have been another chemical reaction or another element that caused the hydrogen to ignite, the answer of compacting by gravity is not good enough. Could there be the supernova factor the one that "pushed" the clouds to create stars?
One of the main issues of the solar system cloud-theory is the position of Jupiter and Saturn, the gas giants: they cannot had formed in the position where they are now, if they formed by a circling spinning of gas that "eventually" compacted, that far away from the sun the gas will spin very slow and it will take, if ever, 20 times the age of the Universe for the gas to compact into a planet. This problem gets extrapolated to the insanity when we consider the position of the other two gas giants: Uranus and Neptune, both so far away from the sun that it is impossible a distant remnant of a cloud-like could have been formed them just by gravity. But undoubtedly, they are there, they were created. What other forces were involved in the gas giants creation? To solve this problem scientist use a very (to my opinion) naive and simplistic answer: "okay, then the gas giants must have formed closer to the Sun and the "migrated" or "shifted" afterwards".... Hello? Seriously? Where did the rocky planets went while this migration took place? The force of the migration would have pushed the Earth out of the solar system. What could have caused this migration anyway? A by-passing star? If so, why didn't it affect at all to the rocky planets? Could it be, I wonder, that when the Sun ignited, all the planets were formed and the solar-wind pushed the planets away? If not, does it means that our solar system is unique due its formation, where the big boys migrate leaving the space for the small ones to thrive, undisturbed, and eventually create life? And due to this unique migration, does it render life a extraordinary one-time only event in the Universe? Yes, indeed more research is needed to solve the so many inconsistencies we have in the Helios Nebula chapter
I'd like to share this video of Barry Setterfield, where he raised some legitimate questions that yep... some of them are not quite answered yet by Science and they need to be. Remember guys and gals: we need to understand how the Universe is, and not to change the Universe so that it can fit our current understanding
- Of the two twin stars to our Sun that Science has found so far, do they have rocky planets like Earth that can sustain life? We must find out whether life-like-earth is a unique rare, and once in a lifetime Universe event or is commonly widespread across the Cosmos. Either way, with these stars being at over 100 light years away, chances are any Earth 2.0 they might host are totally out of reach
- When the sun ignited, was the Earth formed? Probably yes, it must have been frozen cold, far away from the image of "hot molten surface" that many sources picture the early Earth like, though at the time of Theia collision the surface must have melted. Science has dated the age of the Earth at 4.4 billions years old based on zircon crystal found in the Australia, in the surface of the planet... Is the surface is 4.4 billion years old the interior must be older, right? My point is why do we assume that the Sun has to be formed first and then after the planets? Maybe the Earth was a protoplanet, 70% of its size long before the sun ignited. Can somebody explain me why are we assuming that the Earth formed after the Sun was grown up and shinning?
- So... where is the black hole and/or neutron star that created our Sun? It is not hidden under the carpet! It must be somewhere pretty close... and yes it is. The star Sirius A, which is 8.6 light years away, has a small companion called Sirius B, small draft star that could well be the remaining grandfather or our Sun. Does the sun spins around Sirius?
How can there be 1,000 stellar ancestors before our Sun? https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/16311/how-can-there-be-1-000
Alpha Centauri: Closest star to Earth ;https://www.space.com/18090-alpha-centauri-nearest-star-system.html
Proxima Centauri, distance and motion ;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxima_Centauri#Distance_and_motion
Gaia's surprising discoveries ; http://sci.esa.int/gaia/60186-gaia-s-surprising-discoveries-scrutinising-the-milky-way/
Sirius ; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sirius
List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs ; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_nearest_stars_and_brown_dwarfs
HD 162826 ; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HD_162826
HD 186302 ; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HD_186302
Death Spiral: Why Theorists Can’t Make Solar Systems ;https://www.space.com/2206-death-spiral-theorists-cant-solar-systems.html
Solar System formation problems ;https://thecreationclub.com/solar-system-formation-problems-bob-enyart/
Solar system formation by accretion has no observational evidence ;https://creation.com/accretion-hypothesis
Let's cover now in Section 2 the shaping of planet Earth and its peculiarities
At this point of the article we reach a state where the Earth is formed... kind of...at this moment we should call our beloved planet "Earth minus 1" (also called Gaia by scientists, but I much prefer to use the name Gaia for our current planet). At this moment in time, our "planet-to-be" is about to face one of the most significant transformation that makes it the special home in the Cosmos that we know it today: the only planet where life exist. It all started 4.5 billions years ago, when Earth -1 was hit by an object the size of planet Mars, to what would be (we hope) the last planetary collision that formed planet Earth, Gaia. It is thought that the inner solar system must have been a very crowded place, with about 20 protoplanets (planets-to-be) down to the 4 rocky planets that we know today (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and maybe the asteroids belt too), therefore collisions must have happened in the past to reduce that number from around 20 to 4. Only collisions with other big objects can explain why the Earth is spinning so fast, while Venus... rotate backwards, in retrograde mode; this sort of collisions can also explain why Earth is the biggest of the inner rocky planets while Mercury, who probably had very few collisions, is tiny is comparison to Earth. With every collision that Earth -1 was encountering, its surface and part of the mantle was smashed to pieces, and obviously from the early beginning when Earth was just the size of a continent in space, the heavy materials began to sunk to the center, like nickel but mostly iron (symbol fe), the last of the materials that a star can create just before going supernova. The iron inside Earth must all be very ancient, probably originated from the leftovers of the star father to our Sun, before it went supernova. Iron is a special material, the gateway mineral to other dimensions. It is interesting to know that Iron is both the death cause of a star (when a star starts producing iron, it just got days lo live) and the reason planets like ours are able to sustain life, as it powers our magnetic field, not to mention the fundamental weight that iron and its subsequence alloys have to sustain the infrastructure of our civilisation
It is still very debatable the state of Earth -1 prior to Theia collision, and in fact whether the accretion disk theory is valid or not, but without any doubt (you can feel it under your feet) the Earth was indeed formed, and massive collisions with other planets, fighting all for an undisputed space to orbit around the Sun, must have happened in the past. The picture below is a theorised aspect of how the Solar System would have looked 4.6 billions years ago or so, with nearly 20 planets rotating the sun. Where did all this rocky material came from? Must have been orbiting around the nebula from which the Sun's hydrogen collapsed and ignited. As mentioned before, Hydrogen is a gas that, for us here on Earth, takes a lots of effort to compact: it turns into liquid when under pressure. Maybe hydrogen in space behaves differently, perhaps it interacts with dark matter, and it can actually compact an ignite in the vacuum (it definitely ignites somehow, otherwise there would be no stars in the Universe!)
Credit: Evolution of the Solar System: Miracle Planet - The Violent Past
In any case, it is thought that, at the time of this last mayor collision of planet Earth, its surface was completely melted, as if it had already experience very recently other significant impacts, or perhaps it was under the extreme pressure of the imminent collision, getting hotter and hotter with every revolution Earth vs Theia were practising around the Sun, and the surface began to melt by the tidal gravitational waves of Theia. Only this state of liquefied rock on the whole surface of Earth can explain why the Moon density and rocks composition are so close to those found in the surface of our planet. Literally all the mantle of liquefied rock that was covering the Earth was flown away after the impact. The planet that collided with Earth, as you already guessed, was called Theia, wisely named after the Greek mythology mother of the Moon. In this picture below you see at scale 1:1 a representation of Earth, Mars and the Moon, so you get the idea of how a planet the size of Mars hit our planet (which in the picture below -prior collision- must have been smaller), and from that collision an object the size of the Moon formed from the debris. No one is to say that there probably were two or three moons after the impact, but whichever objects were orbiting Earth, eventually they all gather together though the gravity-cannibalism process into our current Moon. The Moon moves away from Earth at a rate of 3.4 cm per year
This collision defines the character of our planet: we are the product of this original accident. The collision is rare because it happens (and it was MAJOR) just after the planet is form, when normally this sort of massive collision would have happened during the creation of the planet. For many many millennia, if not millions of years, Theia and Earth -1 were in a collision course. Perhaps every year, during their orbits around the Sun, they draw closer and closer to one another, maybe others collisions around the solar system altered their orbits, but eventually Theia crashed into the Earth (notice that it wasn't the other way around), and luckily for us the Earth remained on an stable orbit around the Sun after the impact, without the risk of colliding with any of its closest neighbours. You might argue that this event does not make our Earth any special than other planets. As mentioned before Venus, Mars and Mercury also had collisions and that's why some of them are bigger than others (the more matter acquired during the collision, the bigger the planet). And surely there must have been many collisions in the Universe similar to that of Earth vs Theia... who knows how many? One for every Solar System? That would be millions and billions of collisions....however... for life to exist after a collision like that on Earth the following factors must all be met to a staggering precision:
- Theia was the right size of 1/3 of Earth (the size of Mars). Had it been smaller the force of the collision would not had been powerful enough to eject enough matter from the surface of Earth that will eventually create the Moon, which is of utmost significant to support life on Earth, as we later on will see. Had it been bigger the monumental energy of that collision might have split the Earth in two planets. But nope, the collision was of the right size, and for millions of years after it, our planet must have had rings, just like those in Saturn, while the Moon was still forming and acquiring the material from those rings. How often this radio of collisions 1: 1/3 occurs? Okay, there might be collisions in every Solar System during its formation, but that of a radio 1:1/3? The odds of a similar collision like that on Earth occurring somewhere else in the Universe, have now suddenly been diminished
- Theia was travelling at the right speed for the collision to be kind of "gentle", something like around 10 miles a second (the asteroid that wiped the dinosaurs, just a tiny fraction of what Theia must have been in size, was travelling a lot faster in comparison with Theia, at an estimated speed of 12.4 miles a second). Had it been faster probably the debris (and hence the Moon after the collision) would have been flown away escaping Earth's gravity. Had it been slower and the debris would have fallen into the Earth and the Moon would never have formed. What are the odds of this "tender" kiss of Theia happening everywhere else in other collisions? The planet must have been dragged by others through hundreds of revolutions around the Sun, and when it finally hit Earth -1 it was moving slow, wiping the surface of Earth -1 with a gentle but determine push
- Theia hit with the right angle. The collision wasn't back-to-head (or worse head-to-head, which would have happened if they were orbiting in different counter-clock rotations); had it been like that it would have split the planet apart. Needless to say that Theia must have been orbiting clockwise around the Sun, just like Earth and all the other planets, otherwise the collision, had it been head-to-head, would probably have created a flat surface of compacted iron and metals of no use... was perhaps the alien visitor Oumuamua of 2019 created like that? This right-angle of collision had the crucial effect of causing the Earth to start spinning really fast, kick-starting a long lasting geo-dynamo effect, when the core melted by the collisions and the upper area of silicates in the nucleus started rotating faster than the interior of iron, creating the magnetic field that protect us from ultra-violet and gamma rays of the Sun
- Theia was composed of the right materials: surely rock but must have been very rich in iron too. After the collision, the iron of Theia was absorbed by the Earth, sinking down into the nucleus and strengthening the magnetic field of our planet that makes it deflect the deadly radiation of the Sun, by protecting the ozone layer of gases from erosion, which filters those deadly rays. Theia literally gave fuel to Earth to power its magnetic field, that as we know is of critical importance to life on Earth; without it, the gamma rays (radioactivity) will have prevented any cells from grouping because this high energy rays penetrates anything and destroy any DNA that could have been formed. Life on Earth will not exist on our surface if it wasn't for the quick rotation that powers our magnetic field
So we have to be really thankful to Theia, this "random accident" set the right conditions for our planet to host life. Furthermore, the collision left our planet still on the Continuously Habitable Zone (CHZ) of our star, what a relief! Nobody knows if our planet was already on that habitable zone prior the collision, maybe we have to thank to Theia too to leave us right in the center of that blessed zone after her kiss! The habitable zone is a defined area around the Sun were water can exist in liquefied and vapour form, and which borders are still very debatable, with the idea that both Venus and Mars (each on them on opposite sides and at the edges of the habitable zone) also hosted liquid oceans in the past, and had the capabilities of hosting life. Being on the HZ doesn't necessarily means that the planet support life, is just an indicator, meaning that chemical reactions suitable of supporting life are more likely to happen on that area, where water can exist in a liquid state. We need to make a differentiation between the Continuously Habitable Zone (CHZ), the one we are an that is constant during the main sequence lifetime of a star, and the actual Habitable Zone (HZ), which may only last for a few million years. For example, in a few billion years from now the Sun will lose his hydrogen, and start expanding, incinerating planet Earth during its way. For a brief period of time, maybe a few million years, both the moon Europa of Jupiter and the moon Titan of Saturn will be on the habitable zone of our star, so Life can potentially manifest during that period. However, these moons are not in the CHZ, so whichever life forms can be created while they are warm, will be short lived because with the relentless expansion of the Sun, they'll also be incinerated and reduced to dust. The composition of rock vapour, the atmosphere was formed of that after the collision. The Moon formed as a ring first. The orbit of the Moon took 20 days while the days on Earth were lasting 6 hours. Without the Moon, and if we had not tilt, everywhere will recieve 12 hours of day/night, just like Mercury, cold will always be cold and hot always hot; obliterate the surface. The Moon creates frictions and drags that slows our planet, causing the atmosphere to be more benign without so powerful hurricane forces
Credit: R. Ramirez, Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell
This impact was also the direct cause of the rapid rotation of our planet. We know for fossil records that, in the distant past, the Earth was rotating much faster, and that is actually slowing as time pass by. Right after the impact, it is estimated that it must have been spinning at a rate of 5/6 hours to complete a day. We know this because of coral fossils, dated 4 billions years ago, showing on the filaments of deposit that a year lasted 410 days, meaning the days must have been shorter. Once the planet cooled, the gases condenses and water began magically appearing on the surface of Earth, the role of the Moon became to be decisive, as it regulates the fast rotation of Earth, stabilising the wobble of the poles and that of the Earth itself at an angles of 23 degrees, preventing that the North or South pole move further beyond an inclination of 23 degrees from its spin axes. Complex life forms would have been impossible on Earth, otherwise, with drastic changes of temperature that would have make the timeline of evolution to stop at the single cells barrier. Just imagine that every year, for 3 or 4 months, the North Pole of our planet falls into the city of Rome, and around that area you get 70 or 90 degrees Celsius below zero. This rapid shifting of the poles is regulated by the Moon, which just happens to be of the right size too, to effective and efficiently have the gentle gravitational force to prevent the wobble of the Earth from creating extreme temperatures on the surface, yet allowing a mild-wobble, that causes seasons like winter, spring, summer and autumn, fundamental aspects of the mechanics of evolution
In addition to all to these "fortunate" circumstances, another incredible benefit of Theia's impact was the creation of our magnetic field. See the picture below a comparison of Venus, Earth and Mars effect of the solar wind over their individual atmospheres. None of our neighbours have a significant magnetic field that deflect the deadly sun rays. This is disappointing particularly when looking at Venus, our twin-planet, of similar size to Earth and expected to have a similar size of iron core, yet no magnetic field. After all, both Venus and Earth were formed in exactly the same conditions, so how come they evolved so differently?....well, that's the thing: they did not form with the exact same conditions. Our Earth was gently kissed by Theia, and that was the beginning of a history of love with Life in our planet. Every time you see a shooting star, that could well be a leftover of Theia's collision, still telling you to love the person you are thinking of
Credit: European Space Agency (esa). Artist representation of Venus, Earth and Mars solar wind interaction
And you might wonder... all right, how do we know all these thing happened? Nobody was there during the collision to take a snap and upload it to Instagram, right? For those silly cows who still believe we did not reach the Moon, I've got a surprise for you: we did indeed landed in the Moon. The Apollo missions 11, 14 and 15, back on the late 1960s and early 1970s, placed some special mirrors on the surface of the Moon, which helped us measure 'exactly' the distance between our planet and its satellite. It turns out that the Moon is receding from Earth at a rate of 3.8 centimetres a year, roughly the same rate at which your nails grow. If the Moon is receding, that means that in past it must have been closer, right? You do the calculations, going back in time, and it turns out that around 4.5 billions years ago the Moon was just 22,000 kilometres from our planet...while now is (at its closest approach, the perigee) at 363.104 kilometres, that's a clear indication that the Moon formed out of debris circling planet Earth, debris product of a collision. Besides, the rock samples that the Apollo astronauts brought from the Moon, shows that the surface of the Moon is a burnt version twin of our planet, and that both have the same origin, both were one part of the same thing. Like Tony Robinson said on the Catastrophe British Documentary series: "we are here by chance; we survived, 99% of all the species who ever existed, didn't"
Thanks to Theia, the stage to support Life in long-term conditions was setup on our planet. Now, the time was ready for water to appear to appear on the surface and for chemical reactions to occur undisrupted for billion of years. To close this chapter nicely, let's recap the conditions so far of our planet to support life:
- The star hosting the planet must be on a quiet area of the galaxy, safe from supernovas that will sterilise the prospects of life, and safe from invisible black holes too!
- The star must be at a safe distance from its neighbourhood, to prevent collisions or unexpected visits during the life of the planets subjects to host Life
- The star itself must be very stable, shinning steadily for billions of years. Come on, our sun has not taken a break even once!
- The planet must be positioned in the habitable zone of the star, for liquid water to form on the surface. Water is a key element for chemical reactions to develop into Life
- The planet must have a magnetosphere or something to deflect or reduce the amount of radiation coming from the parent star, radiation that otherwise will sterilise the planet
- For a magnetosphere to be powerful enough to do that, the planet must be spinning fast
- For a magnetosphere to be powerful enough to do that, the planet must have enough iron on its nucleus to behave as a geo-dynamo and generate the magnetic field
- For the planet to spin fast and also has enough iron, some sort of collision must have occurred on the planet during its birth, to ensure its spin motion is fast enough for the effect of geo-dynamo to manifest
- A Moon or other mechanism must exist around the planet, to counter for the fluctuations that such a rapid spin may produce on the surface of the planet, like extreme temperatures compromising the evolution of Life
- A big protector, like Jupiter or similar, must exist to absorb comets and collision that otherwise will jeopardise the evolution of Life on that planet
NASA Study: Moon is made of material from Earth, not Theia https://www.extremetech.com/extreme/285173-new-nasa-study-suggests-moon-is-made-of-material-from-earth-not-theia
How was the Moon formed? https://www.space.com/19275-moon-formation.html
Giant Impact Hypothesis: an evolving legacy of Apollo https://astronomy.com/news/2019/05/giant-impact-hypothesis-an-evolving-legacy-of-apollo
Dinosaurs were killed off by Isle of Wight-size asteroid, scientist say https://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/mar/05/dinosaurs-asteroid-science-climate-change
Oumuamua origin history: How our mysterious interstellar visitor may have been born https://www.space.com/interstellar-object-oumuamua-origins-tidal-disruption.html
When exoplanets collide https://news.ucsc.edu/2019/10/exoplanets-collide.html
When the Impact that Created the Moon Happened Whenhttps://www.universetoday.com/142117/when-the-impact-that-created-the-moon-happened-the-early-earth-was-still-a-ball-of-magma/
The Moon has been drifting away from Earth for 4.5 billion years https://www.businessinsider.com/video-moon-drifts-away-earth-4-billion-years-2019-9?r=US&IR=T
Why Venus doesn't have a magnetosphere? https://phys.org/news/2017-12-doesnt-venus-magnetosphere.html
Apollo 11 Misson: Laser Ranging Retroreflector https://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/experiments/lrr/
Was Venus ever habitable? https://earthsky.org/space/was-venus-ever-habitable
Was Venus alive? The signs are probably there https://www.space.com/283-venus-alive-signs.html
Nasa climate modelling suggests Venus may have been habitable https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2475/nasa-climate-modeling-suggests-venus-may-have-been-habitable/
Earth-Moon Dynamics https://www.lpi.usra.edu/exploration/training/illustrations/earthMoon/
What did the Moon look like from Earth 4 billion years ago? https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2018/07/11/what-did-the-moon-look-like-from-earth-4-billion-years-ago/
NASA study solves two mysteries about wobbling Earth https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=6332
With all these new planets found in the habitable zone https://www.universetoday.com/139699/with-all-these-new-planets-found-in-the-habitable-zone-maybe-its-time-to-fine-tune-the-habitable-zone/
The Earth Magnetic Field, an overview http://www.geomag.bgs.ac.uk/education/earthmag.html
Rising Rock, Earth's Crust has its own tides too https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/rising-rock-earths-crust-has-its-own-tides.htm
Why does t he Moon gravity cause tides but the sun doesn't? https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/rising-rock-earths-crust-has-its-own-tides.htm
Where did all the water of our planet comes from? If I believed that finding an answer to the question "Why are we here?" was a challenge, it turns out that discovering an explanation to the origin of the water is even a bigger endeavour. Okay, you might say, who cares about why we are here, anyway? After all, this is a kind of metaphysical question for which every person will has an answer, so trying to 'fix' an answer for such erratic bubbling question is pretty absurd and a complete waste of time. But... for the question of where all the water of our planet comes from... that is something really different. We need to know where all this water comes from, end of the question. Water is a tangible object, our bodies are made of it and therefore our civilisation depends of it, so we really need to understand how the liquid element came to manifest in such quantities into the surface of our planet. If we want to ensure the survival of both our bodies and our civilisation, we need to know the answer to the origin of water with absolute certainty
Water molecules are simple: H2O, two atoms of hydrogen (the most common element of the Universe, formed after the Big Bang) and one atom of Oxygen that glues them two, forming an angle of 104.5 degrees. Oxygen, the third most abundant element in the Universe after hydrogen and helium, was forged inside the first generation of stars, then spread across the galaxy by supernovas. Yet, it seems small organisms can release oxygen by breaking down the water molecules (and I always wondered, where does the Hydrogen goes when the Oxygen is released by the plants/organism). Life behaves like a supernova at the time of generating by-products, like Oxygen in Nucleosynthesis or Oxygen in Photosynthesis. Obviously, the water on Earth was formed by the "oxygen" that was left over after supernovas and that interacted with Hydrogen in the space to form water molecules. Can really understand how water molecules are form out of the nothing up there in space, do they just bump on our another and decided to form a molecule? The oxygen that you now breath was created by small organisms million of years ago and by the trees and plants of nowadays, that oxygen was not produced inside a star. It is just not possible that the oxygen on the water was created by organisms, as they need the water to be there in the first place in order to exist. And what are the circumstances by which an Oxygen atom can join to two Hydrogen counterparts to form water? Gravity bounding pressure? And... is the oxygen in the water (the one created by supernovas) exactly the same as the oxygen in the air (the one released by nature) that we breath? So, if I got it right, we can just pump hydrogen and oxygen into the vacuum of space... and eventually water will form our of those two? hello?
Water is a very, very, very... very special thing, it has the properties of cohesion, adhesion, a high specific heat, surface tension and polarity. Have a look at this amazing video below, and the lovely lady doing the presentation will explain you all these properties in more detail. To all of these properties, I'd like to add reflection: water does reflect light and that is yet another key component that plays a role at the time of supporting Life. The thing that amaze me the most is how water behaves when it is on its solid form: ice. It floats above its liquid state. Yes, ice floats over water, though this only happens on Light Water, and not Heavy Water. This is a unique property of the electrically charged molecules, and the 104.5 degrees that joins then to others, making the ice less dense than liquid water. Normally any substance on its solid form will sink when presented to the same substance on its liquid state, but that's not the case with water. This property, among the many others it has, creates a shields of ice over liquid water that protects any chemical reactions that may occur underneath the ice, thus truly supporting Life not just from the inside as a dissolvent and transport of energy, but also from the outside as a protector
Why snowflakes are hexagonal? has it got something to do with the 105.4 degrees of separation of the water molecules? and are they really unique from one another? Does water has memory, and therefore capable of storing information? And if so, is the water inside me linked to whichever other creatures hosted that same molecules in the past? Can it recall the violence and the love it was subject to? Is a cluster of water-structure the ultimate key that powers the thoughts of our brains? Does water 're-align' itself harmoniously when expose to music and healthy vibrations? When we bless the food... are we actually projecting positive energy on the water of the food, thus make it harmoniously structured and healthy? Why rivers from 'meanders' and they don't go on regular lines? After all, nature energy-safe-philosophy dictates that the shortest distance between A and B is a straight line, right? Does our planet emit a healthy vibration that allows water to support life effortlessly? Organisms prefer to be formed of water, as it contains the perfect medium to transport energy (think of a tall tree, and the water carrying the nutrients to the top) and the resilience of supporting high and low temperatures without altering much; consider that the organs on your body are fine-tuned to a specific temperature, they can only perform in between 35 to 38 degrees Celsius, quite a narrow range when you consider that the long-term habitable areas of our planet vary from -40C to +45C. The water inside us ensures that our bodies stay in the healthy range of 35 to 38 degrees, else we'll die. Indeed water is a very mysterious element, the only element that expands when it cools, and also the only element that we just cannot be compressed. And why in the first place hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water? Nobody really knows, but in doing so they enable Life for the whole Universe. Water is neutral, it has no charge, but it does reacts to electricity and magnetism, as it contains one area with positive charge and the other with negative, that's is probably why clouds can form thunders and rays are created during storms. Was Jesus baptism and his miracle of turning water into wine a hint? telling us that water is the key element of the Universe for transformation? Can we perhaps travel to other stars through water? After all, water molecules are present in absolutely everywhere and everything. When we look at someone, and we determine that that person is pretty or handsome, is our decision influence by the water molecules structures of both us and that person? Does our 104.5 degrees matches? Water is an inorganic molecule, yet the most important compound in the body, meaning we are not 100% organic, nothing is. We're made of water, hydrogen and oxygen (and a bit of nasty Deuterium too), and while Hydrogen is the fuel of stars , oxygen on the other hand interacts with everything and is very combustible, why don't we ignite? Could water be use as a fuel once we unlock its secrets?
And why do rivers form meanders? yeah, yeah, we all know the story of that we water speed causes erosion on one side of the river, moving sediments to the other side, etc. Possibly, but then why meander occurs when water if falling on windscreen? or through a window when it rains? And why the average sinuosity of a river is 3 times longer than is the river was running straight? This sinuosity of average is the number.... 3.14, the number pi. Is the water tuning by the vibration of our planet?
Jumping now out of the water, let's continue with what was happening with our planet. I'd like to think that in the evening after Theia's impact the flag was raised, and geo, paleo and history physics started with the kilometre zero of the new beginning of planet Earth, with an age called the Precambrian period which includes in itself 3 eons. There is no clear consensus as to when this period started, sometimes I read 4.6 billions years ago, other 4.5 and others even 4 billions years ago; the most common approach that I've found is as follows:
- Hadean eon lasting something between 700 to 500 million years, sometime I read 4.5 to 3.8 billions years ago and other 4.6 to 3.9 or 4 billion years. I guess we can't blame palaeontologist, given the huge amount of time that they're dealing with. but nevertheless is kind of frustrated to read Science articles and each of the comes with a different time scale. They all agree, however, that this eon contains the formation of the Moon, the late heavy bombardment and probably the creation of oceans on our planet. Pillow lava shows that there were oceans as old as 3.8 billion years ago
- Archean eon, a lot longer, lasting around 2.4 billion years or 2 billion years, contains the formation (or at least the evidence of existence) of our magnetosphere and hints of Life
- Proterozoic eon, lasted for 2 billion years, this is when the oxygen appears in the atmosphere and the snowball events happened, when the Earth was completely covered in ice
I'd like to think that, yeah, that the history of our planet started right after the impact. However, and as usual, scientist lack just that bit of romantic touch, and apparently the Hadean Eon also include the collision with Theia, in other words the total formation of planet Earth. They got it wrong, obviously, because the planet is only formed after Theia's impact. Anyway, we are going to follow this already well established chronological map of planet Earth created by Science, to find out what happened during these times, let's see if all actually makes sense. Before moving forward, I'd like to introduce you to a new concept, yet another projection in our minds in the fabric of space time, a measurement: the Ga or Gya, which stands for "giga-annum" and it means a billion years, 10 raise to the power of nine
Okay, so let's start where we end ii on the previous chapter, right after the collision with Theia. This eon is also called the "Black Earth" and it may actually make sense as seeing from space, with the Earth surrounded with a thick atmosphere of dark and grey gases, generated from the ocean of molten rock with no end that was covering the surface of the planet. That must have been quite spectacular, with the planet spinning so fast... how strong were the winds? Would any hurricane of molten lava have formed? Let's say just 1 million years after the impact, the Moon by then would have pretty much formed and from its early beginning it was drifting away from planet Earth. Now the Moon takes about 28 days to complete an orbit around our planet, but back then, 1 million years after the impact, how long would have taken? It is believed that it was around then when the tidal locking between Earth and Moon began to manifest, with the Moon, in spite of orbiting so fast around our planet (we don't know how fast, but definitely much, much less than 28 days!), steadily being forced to stop and start presenting the same face to our planet. It has been condemn ever since to do that, from this time until the end of eternity. Even if nowadays the Moon is capable of influencing the Earth crust and have an input on earthquakes, back then, 4.5 billion years ago, its influence on the surface of Earth must have been horrendous, with friction forces that may have raise waves of molten lava perhaps hundreds of meters high, right? Specially when the Moon was full, or did it had phases at that time? In any case, there would have been no chance to see it from the surface, as the thick atmosphere of Co2 and sulphuric gases would have covered the entire Earth after the collision. Just like the currents that we experience nowadays on our oceans or the ones that we see on planet Jupiter, there must have been currents too when our Earth was just an infinite sea of molten rock. It must have been colder at the poles, I guess, where the currents would not have been that strong and the rocks could start cooling and forming big island or continents, floating on the plasma state of our planet, the starting of the pre-tecnonic plates. These continents size of crust, even though cool on the surface, where enduring heat from underneath, immense heat that eventually gave to the creation of the first volcano of planet Earth, it must have been quite spectacular, erupting among the solidified rock and ejecting / releasing the heat from within the planet
Where was all the water then? None yet. Presumably there was some water on Earth -1, prior to Theia's kiss, water that was part of the original formation of the planet when it was gaining shape and size, during the process of collisions with the leftovers of Helios nebula icy and rocky materials. However, all of this water must have been vaporised when the collision with Theia took place, bursting off the molecules into space, as water is a very light element. The fairly big pull gravitational force of Earth would have prevented all of this water from escaping into the vacuum, and in spite of the extreme temperatures of the planet, some water vapour might have been retained in the atmosphere of Black Earth, but nowhere near the same amount that we now have, so where did all the remaining water that we currently enjoy on our planet comes from? Our planet back then must have been a mix of Venu's atmosphere and IO's (Jupiter's Moon) volcanic activity. Both Venus atmosphere and IO's surface seems to contain some molecules of water, Venus currently has them in tiny amount (but they re there), and there is evidences that IO could have had them in the past, but after so many billion of years it is all gone. So, if the hellish atmosphere of Venus contains some water molecules TODAY, could it had contained a lot more in the past, just like our Black Earth could have contained? And not only our Earth has water, as we know it, the Moon also has water! It must have arrived there after the collision and condensed once the surface was kind of cold. Our minds cannot properly visualise high temperatures, like those on the surface of the Sun, and water molecules together on the same environment, but maybe we're wrong: water is a very resilience element and it does exist in the form on ice at whichever low temperature you want to think of; can it also exist in the form of vapour to whichever high temperature you want to think of? If so, probably most of the water was on Earth -1 surface as part of his growing acquisition material process during the formation, and Theia just brought extra water and iron....together with a heat that will last for billions of years, locked in the interior of our planet
Below a timeline I've created that illustrates the periods created by Palaeontology together with the events and hypothetical circumstances that happened on our beloved planet
There are 3 hypothesis that aim to explain the origin of water on planet Earth:
- Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), it is called late not because there was an earlier one, but because it seems to have occurred kind of late on the development of the solar system, when the planets were already formed. There is evidence on Mercury, on our Moon and in Mars that at around 4 billions years ago, and for the space of around 300 million, they were subject to lots of impacts of comets and asteroid, surely not one every minute, like you see on the movies, but one every few hundred years or so, kind of a constant rate that left the scars and craters that we can see on their surfaces today. The idea is that these objects that were impacting were composed mostly of ice, water, and that they came from the outer solar system when we know water seems to be plentiful, around the Kuiper belt. Hello? First of all, it seems the water in the Kuiper Belt is "heavy water", formed with deuterium instead of hydrogen (adds an extra neutron to the nucleus), but anyway, how did they manage the escape Saturn and in particular Jupiter gravitational fields. The massive role of Jupiter in relation to Life is to actually protect the inner rocky planets from impacts, we all know what Jupiter did to Shoemaker-Levi back in 1994, and it did it again with another comet in 2009. So, how come so many comets were able to completely bypass Jupiter's attraction and deliver water to Earth? And if Earth is estimated to have 1.3 billions cubit meters of water, the same amount must have been delivery in proportion to their sizes, to Mars, Venus, our Moon and even Mercury. Some scientists literally say not to blame the asteroids for the late heavy bombardment, but then again asteroids are the only ones who could have carried water to Earth. Something beyond the orbit of Jupiter would have contained heavy water or would have been sucked by Jupiter's pull. If we estimate that the LHB lasted for around 300 millions years and that the Earth was subjected to an impact per 100 years years, we can actually calculate the size of the comets in order to account for all the water in the planet:
- 1,300 million cubit meters of water / 300 million that lasted LHB = the planet was getting 4.3 million cubit water per million of years. So we deduce from this that for every 100 years the planet was getting 4,300 cubit meters of water....ejem.... that equals to a 4.3 Tones meteor every 100 years!!! inside!!! The meteor that blasted the dinosaurs has a diameter of 150 km... in comparison one of the meteors that were given water to Earth had a diameter of 4.3 km... double that when we consider that the vast majority of the comets we see nowadays are composed 50% of water, so yeah, a 8.6 kms asteroid hitting every 100 years, maybe even bigger if we consider that materials like iron where also delivered to the surface at that time. A 500km wide asteroid impact would have vaporise all the water, no doubt about it, only superheated bedrock would be left behind a month after such impact. Not a chance for Life at all... I just cannot understand how such big asteroids, if they ever impacted Earth, could have escaped Jupiter's pull and reach us. Research shows that the Kuiper belt must have had many million more comets that it currently has, where are the missing ones? Did they slam into the inner planets? Kuiper belt grains and dust is still bombardment the inner solar system. At the time of the LHB, there were 500 miles an hour hurricanes due to the rapid rotation of the planet, what a sight that would have been: a 500 miles an hour hurricane smashed by the impact of 10 km asteroid
- Mantle Hydrogen Generator (MHG); there was not a nomenclature for this effect, so I just make the "Mantle Hydrogen Generator" or MHG. The theory goes that, being the most abundant element of the Universe, there was hydrogen too on our early Earth, compacted on its liquid form and that we can still find nowadays when digging deep into our planet crust. This hydrogen (H), when compacted under the tremendous pressure on Earth's crust, and perhaps stress too by the influence of the strong tidal forces of the early moon, reacted with the oxygen kept in the silicates of the rocks, creating water as a result. This might explain why water is always on the planet not matter how deep you dig, it looks like is coming from the bottom up and not the other way around. Okay, we might have gotten a few icy asteroids on our surface, but as many as to account for 1.3 billion of cubit meters of water? That's the estimated amount of water that we have. One thing I don't get about this theory is that hydrogen becomes liquid when compacted, yes... but at a temperature of minus 252.87 Celsius, so how come it does exist on its liquid form when the interior of Earth is so hot? If this theory has some fundamental true, then water must be present underground on every planet! And being a light element eventually it will go up to the surface, possible?
- Prior Impact Water (PIW); again there was no nomenclature for this theory so let's called Prior Impact Water, the water that was presence on our planet before Theia's kiss. Nobody knows for sure, but is very likely that oceans were present on Earth -1; they were formed as part of previous collision of icy object and as the slow accumulation of water occurred in relation with the planet mass growth. Just imagine if the asteroids belt all of the sudden decide to skip the force of Jupiter and join into a planet, will it have oceans? The asteroids on that belt has plenty of water already. Will they really have oceans if a moon like, let's say Europa, so full of water, join the planet too? It is possible that our early Earth was just like that, a planet to be full of oceans, and probably Theia had oceans too. After the impact all that water vaporised but could not escape the gravitational force of our planet, and eventually condensate in rain and bean to flood the surface. Just imagine before the rain happened, when the surface was a pure ocean of magma: the atmosphere must have been tremendous huge, with a few kilometres high, in order to be thick enough to contain all that primitive water. Jack Hills, in Wester Australia, is where Zircon crystal have been found dated 4.4 billions years ago. These crystal are formed when molten rock get solidified, and it happens that these crystal seems to have been solidifies very rapidly, as it there were in the presence of water....an indication that oceans were present as far back as 4.4 billion years ago, right after Theia's collision and in time for the water of both planets to condensate and fall as rain on the surface
None of these hypothesis seems to correlate to the fact that we have 2 types of water on our planet: Light formed with hydrogen and Heavy formed with Deuterium, we have a lot more quantities of Light water than Heavy, but yes, we do have naturally in the environment Heavy Water, where did it come from? Was it delivered by comets well beyond Jupiter's orbit?
Light vs Heavy water. Credit: What is Deuterium?
Evidence has been found on another solar system of LHB events, where a cloud of dust (presumably asteroids and comets) are circling around the habitable zone of a star. Is it a LHB a must event in order for a planet to support life? There is no doubt that LHB happened (craters in other planets are the proof), and that thanks to LHB we find elements like iron close to the surface of the earth, elements that otherwise would have sunken deep into the mantle and elements that we need for the formation of Life, not to mention to support an advance civilisation
In addition to Theia's condition, there other variables must also be met for life to exist:
- A Late Heavy Bombardment event must occur early in the life of planet
- The LHB has to deliver lots of water, to cover the surface of the planet up to 75%
- The LHB has to deliver useful bio-chemical components so that they are in the surface of the planet and can be used for chemical reactions
- Tectonic plates must exist, in order to account for regular change of climates that will drive the evolution of Life. Is there is no tectonics plates then the dessert will be desserts forever and Life will stack to an algea form and will live as such forever after, no changes in condition will force it to evolve
To conclude, yes there is water on Earth, and we got kind of valid theories that attempt to explain why the water is here, but now of them is solid, all of these theories have holes, questions and doubts that makes them just like water: impossible to hold in your hand on its liquid form
Astronomers detect large amounts of oxygen in ancient star's atmosphere https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200123152540.htm
What is the structure of a water molecule? http://www.iapws.org/faq1/molecule.html
When and where did Earth get its oxygen? https://earthsky.org/earth/when-where-earths-o2-oxygen-rise-began
Unusual properties of water https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules
Hadean Eon, the formation of Earth https://earthhow.com/hadean-eon/
Evidence of Hadean Eon Life? https://www.rookandalus.com/blogs/firstlife
Does IO have a magma ocean? https://eos.org/features/does-io-have-a-magma-ocean
The Chance for life on IO https://www.astrobio.net/news-exclusive/the-chance-for-life-on-io/
Structured Water, what is it? http://www.crystalblueent.com/structured-water---what-is-it-part-1.html
The origins for Life raises major planetary puzzles https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/life-unbounded/early-origins-for-life-raises-major-planetary-puzzles/
Tidal misconceptions https://www.lockhaven.edu/~dsimanek/scenario/tides.htm
Study suggests hydrogen, oxygen, water and carbon dioxide generated in Earth's mantle https://phys.org/news/2017-10-hydrogen-oxygen-carbon-dioxide-earth.html
A huge hydrogen generator at the Earth's core-mantle boundary https://phys.org/news/2017-11-huge-hydrogen-earth-core-mantle-boundary.html
Huge amount of water in Earth's mantle https://sureshemre.wordpress.com/2014/05/04/huge-amount-of-water-in-earths-mantle/
Planet Earth makes its own water from scratch deep in the mantle https://www.newscientist.com/article/2119475-planet-earth-makes-its-own-water-from-scratch-deep-in-the-mantle/
Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments https://www.pnas.org/content/113/39/10802
The Late Heavy Bombardment: a violent assault on young Earth https://www.space.com/36661-late-heavy-bombardment.html
The origin of Oxygen in Earth's Atmosphere https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/origin-of-oxygen-in-atmosphere/
Geological history of Earth https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Geological_history_of_Earth
Earth's Facts https://facts.net/nature/universe/earth-facts
Two types of Natural Water https://steemit.com/health/@alkemix/two-types-of-natural-water-which-one-is-good-for-your-health
Asteroid Belt vs Kuiper Belt vs Oort Cloud http://ryanmarciniak.com/archives/390
A meandering tale: the truth about pi and rivers https://www.theguardian.com/science/alexs-adventures-in-numberland/2015/mar/14/pi-day-2015-pi-rivers-truth-grime
In this chapter we'll try to understand how Life came about to materialise on our planet. We have already gone through the lots of variables, conditions and events that needed to have occurred in the past so that Life could even have a chance to exist. All of these variables do challenge the Laws of Probabilities. Are we a cosmic accident? What are the changes of all of these circumstances (Theia, the magnetic field, the Moon, the Late Heavy Bombardment, etc) happening on another planet? Would Life had evolved if one of these variables was altered? Of course not, all of these events are absolutely critical for the grow and flourish of Life on our planet. Let's say, if you remove the Magnetic Field (not enough nickel on the core could do it) then that's it: bye bye Life. Planet Earth will be flooded in deadly radiation from the Sun and break any DNA on the surface, no chance for complex bacteria to evolve into a forest for example. If you remove the LHB, then there won't be enough water and definitely not enough materials like Carbon or Zinc to kick start Life on Earth. Life indeed did emerge from non-living ingredients
We stick to the facts: the oldest fossils on Earth was found to be 3.8 billion years ago. This chapter covers that area, not long after Theia and the Late Heavy Bombardment, when the oceans must have just been formed and chemistry reactions had a chance to develop undisrupted. Life is nothing more than a chemical reaction involving Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, together with Sulphur and Phosphorus in what is called the 5 Building Blocks of Life or CNOHPS. Of all these elements (two of which we know compose water) Carbon is indeed the signature of Life and an absolutely essential ingredient of it. The presence of water does not necessary means Life, but for Life "as we know it" Carbon has to be there. That's right, when you hear the sentence "Life as we know it" that means Life carbon-based, which is the only type of Life that we know. As this wonderful video explains below, the key of Carbon life-based relies on its atomic structure. The fact is that, just like with the origins of water, nobody knows the root cause of the origins of Life: no one has a clue what caused Life to start, and how non-living materials became animated. Some people argue that absolutely everything is alive, and that the animated state is simple a transformation of the compounds, just like when water transforms from liquid to gas, in both stages it is water but only on one it can form clouds. Every living thing, after some time, become a non-living thing and so on, in a continuous regeneration of materials found on our beautiful planet Earth
Carbon shares some similarities with Oxygen, both materials are created by stars and yet both are also the ultimate Gods of Life, with Carbon regulating the temperature of the planet as C2O and Oxygen allowing the development of complex life forms. Carbon is a material very versatile, happy to form bounds and create structures like amino-acid, proteins and eventually DNA, and all these structures are supported by water, that carries nutrients and energy along the compounds. Now we need to put this into action: where did Life got started? Carbon and Water must have been there, but also some sort of energy to kick-start the chemical reaction. Nobody has a clue of why Life got started, of the jump between inorganic compound to organic molecules, but there are some theories that aim to pinpoint the location of where Life could have started:
- It came from outer space; this theory claims that Life formed elsewhere and was delivered to Earth by asteroids. Okay.... where did that Life form then? On Mars? on Venus? All of them were subjected to the Late Heavy Bombardment, just like Earth, with the same probabilities of Life to at least get started. This theory argues that amino-acids landed in Earth, in meteorites big enough for not be burned out completely when entering the thick atmosphere of Co2 and sulphuric that back then our Earth must have had. Comets diving into our oceans delivering organic compounds, and they surviving the extreme pressure of the impact, even in the ocean? Researches show that organic molecules not they only survive, but they even use the energy of the impact to grow larger and form peptide, the building block of proteins. The LHB was a solar system party event, therefore Venus and Mars must have had them too. Still, this theory doesn't explain where Life started in the first place
- It came from inside Earth; methane gases, extreme pressure and certain amount of water could have been the right location where Life got started, away from the surface where the Late Heavy Bombardment would have made all but impossible for microorganism to transform to Life. Bacteria has been found deep inside Earth (South Africa mines) where they reproduce once every 1,000 years! I personally doubt Life started in Earth's crust given the fact that this environment has not change in billions of years, it could have been used as a refuge, not questions about that, but as the origin of Life? nah? Life likes easy things, like getting energy from the Sun, and only evolve if the surrounded are challenged. Methane is deep in every mine, why? it has been trapped from the atmosphere, they say, or does it originates from within the crust?
- It came from the surface of the planet; meaning from hydrothermal pools exposed to the atmosphere. I find this very unlikely because there is no evidence of the magnetic field being formed until around the same time that Life formed, meaning that the surface was covered by Sun radiation which breaks down any carbon molecule trying to assemble. Furthermore, the Moon was still pretty close and the tidal forces on the earlier oceans must have been formidable, with water entering inland hundred of miles, distributing minerals, destroying mountains and flooding valleys. These massive waves would have destroyed any hydrothermal pond dared to exist close to the ocean, and instead these massive waves must have taken all minerals from land and bust them into the oceans. There was to oxygen in the atmosphere yet, therefore no ozone layer existed capable of filtering ultraviolet light energy beams
- It came from the bottom of the ocean; volcanic vents in ocean floors are the prime candidates for Life to have evolved. The bottom of the ocean is where the minerals that the tidal waves of the Moon were removing from the surface of the planet ended up, and this is also where from hundred on millions of years conditions could remain relatively the same, away from the surface where 500-miles hurricanes where still happening due to the proximity of the Moon. If this is where Life started....then many planets must have Life too. Minerals have chemical properties and we still need nowadays to be alive, they are part of the equation that results in the origin of Life
Hydrothermal vents, did Life started here? Credit: hydrothermal vents
For a period of 3 billion years only single-cellular and colonies of these organisms populated the Earth. We are going to assume that Life formed first at the bottom of the ocean, I personally believe this is the most plausible option. Life does not change unless forced to, and here comes the change when after million of years the oceans where Life was were receding due to tectonic planets. Sunlight began to hit these organisms and they develop the real engine of Life: photosynthesis, they started to harvest the energy from the Sun rather than from volcanic vents, producing oxygen as a waste product in the way. But what about the radiation? If oxygen wasn't present in the atmosphere yet, there was no ozone layer (ozone depends on oxygen) and therefore the first organism developing photosynthesis would have been fried by the radiation of the Sun. How did that happened then? Photosynthesis developed under the sea, and the water itself must have been acting as a filter for radiation. Nothing was living in land until about 500 million years ago
To conclude, all creatures that have ever existed on Earth have the same LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor), a single bacteria, archaea or Eukaryota from where all other organism in the planet evolved, but nobody had the least remote idea of how did it happened, how al of the same there was a chemical reaction called Life where before there only was raw inorganic materials. Let's understand now how the planet behaves when it has Life, and let's investigate too how the planet "breathes" and regulates its temperature, because there is an equilibrium of which we really need to have a clear understanding. I've called this "breath" process of the planet the Greenhouse Effect Index (GFI) and I'm surprise the Science has not come out with this measurement before, considering that ALL the planets where we hope Life could evolve need to have a certain level of Greenhouse Effect Index to support Life; the initial GFI that I've thought about goes something like this:
- Action GFI; the planet experience a volcanic eruption or of hit by a comet/asteroid, and that creates lots of Co2 in the atmosphere. The amount of gases expelled goes from Green (lots of Co2) to Amber (a lot more of Co2) to Red, with Red containing the most amount of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, including methane
- Heat GFI; Earth is warm by the Sun, and the surface emits energy in form of radiation that is absorb by the greenhouse gases and water vapour (they vibrate), preventing this energy from escaping into the space and keeping the planet warm. When an Action-Red GFI occurs, the Earth reacts by creating a Heat-Red GEI that causes the planet to be extremely hot, with many gases -including methane- keeping the atmosphere warm. With a Heat-Red GFI in place, the planet reaches a positive loop, with more water vapour being evaporated and contributing more and more to a high level of Heat-Red GFI of the planet
- Cold GFI; if there are no greenhouses then all the heat that reaches the planet during the day will vanish into the space, with no gases able to maintain the planet warm. Snowball events are a prime example of this, with all the Co2 of the atmosphere removed by cyanobacteria, leaving them with basically nothing to breath but the waste and poisoned product that they produced called Oxygen
- The levels of O2 don't affect the temperature of the planet, otherwise during the Carvoniferos, when the the oxygen levels were 50%, why didn't it trigger another Snowball event? The Co2 must be the one related to the temperature
It seems to me that the trigger to a high development of species occurred right after the Cryogenian Glaciation (Stuart-Varangian), also called Snowball Earth 2, 650 million years ago. Under the extreme pressure to survive that the cyanobacteria at the time would have found, when all the sudden the source of energy (the Sun) was seriously depleted, they began to ate one another, to develop multicellular organism to survive the predation rate and... invented sex as a means to reproduce rather than cloning themselves as they have been done till that glaciation. Early Earth was brutal for Life, and for about 3 billion years it was put on check by the environment... but we all know that Life if tough.. and it really is! There are micros discovered on ice crystal left by receding oceans hundred of million of years ago, that when heated up again came to life! They were just hibernating waiting for conditions to be good again to reproduce, how amazing is that? Life can survive millions of years frozen in salt. Life did work its way through, persisting and slowly changing the atmosphere and a complete geo-biotransformation the planet head to toe, pumping oxygen into the atmosphere and creating the first ever... ice! First ice ever since Theia's kiss. What happens thereafter is a roller-coaster and Life vs extinction, random extinctions based in either external factors or by the composition of our atmosphere until finally (or at least for now) a fine-tuned equilibrium has been reached, but oh boy! It has been hard, and at any time disaster can strike again and push all Life against the cliff of extension. No wonder that we have evolved to be so aggressive to one another, it is encoded on our genes after so many stress times lived. We've been getting lucky so so so so so many times. We are here simply because we are lucky , and the end of change of random events that could have played either way!
Have a read and look at the different extinction events that Life has encounter on its path, and the creature that are no longer with us, 95% of all species that ever existed are gone. Science only recognise 5 mayor mass extinction, but I've added a few more which I think are relevant, mos to them found on this fantastic link: anything that changes the environment quickly inevitable lead to a mass extinction. This is an absolute roller-coaster of extinctions that I found very exhausting in compiling and documenting, they always kept on growing!
Extinction 1 - (3.8 Gya) Archean Eon and the Carbon Genesis
"Life as we know it" means carbon-base Life, our genesis formally known as Abiogenesis, but there might have been other genesis. In fact, nowadays Life exist in places where carbon-based organisms cannot survive, places full of methane and carbon dioxide, gases that were in our atmosphere in the Archeaon Eon. When cyanobacteria developed and start harvesting sunlight, polluting the atmosphere with Oxygen, many species of bacteria that could not take oxygen in were force to evolve or die. This probably was the biggest extinction of them all, when the Genesis-Photosynthesis kill all other Genesis that might have existed in our planet. Who is not to say that the whole surface of the planet and its rivers, rich in iron and methane, were not covered in snotite and other similar bacteria? There are still a few survivors that might belong to other Genesis and don't need oxygen at all to make a living
Extinction 2 - (2.4 Gya) Huronian Glaciation, Snowball Earth 1 - Grand Oxygenation Event (GOE)
The bacteria, using primitive photosynthesis, were effectively removing green house gases like methane from the atmosphere and replacing it with oxygen, cooling the planet NOT because there was oxygen on it, but because they remove all of the greenhouse gases, reaching a minimum Cold-GFI index. To make things worse, the supercontinent Kenorland began to break up altering the weather and causing the Huronian Glaciation that was to last for 300 million years... that's longer that dinosaurs ever roamed the Earth. How many types of bacteria died during that glaciation? Sea levels dropped, all water became ice and therefore no rain. This event is know as the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE)... but it stopped once the glaciation started, because there was not enough bacteria left to continue oxygenating the planet. Bacteria must have died by the trillions, because no more Co2 was removed from the oceans or from the atmosphere. Eventually, a few volcanic eruptions might have been what was needed to slowly warm up the planet again, pumping Co2 and green houses into the atmosphere and ended this glaciation; even a small amount of eruptions and Co2 would have done, as there was literally to process in place to remove any Co2 from the atmosphere, so the planet got warmer and snowball earth part 1 ended... but not for long. These heavy glaciation early in the history of our planet could be due to the Faint Young Sun Paradox, and issue propposed by Carl Sagan and George Mullen by which, they argue, the Earth must have been frozen over early in its history because the Sun was 30% brighter and therefore less heat arrived to Earth.
Extinction 3 - (650 Mya) Stuart-Varangian Glaciation, Snowball Earth 2
So the planet stay frozen for a few million years during Snowball 1, then warm up again and the bacteria began to spread again, depleting the atmosphere of greenhouse again... and causing, you guess it: snowball Earth 2. This time there is plenty evidence of this event. There is BIG, BIG jump of time between snowball events of almost 2 billions years... the time it took bacteria to remove Co2 from the atmosphere and the volcanism of the planet to restore it back again. Erratic rocks found in Flinders Ranges (Australia) or Death Valley (USA) give evidence for the Snowball Earth 2, where the magnetic signature of the rocks shows they were in the tropics... so how can a glacier exist in the Ecuador? ?Well.... there you have the Kilimanjaro glacial. The "wreathing process" takes away C02 from the atmosphere and lock it away, furthermore, cyanobacteria generates O2 so they make things even worse, locking C02 into stromatolites. That created more ice (specially sea ice, that reflects 85% of the sunlight it hits it) , which in turn reflected even more sunlight away, thus starting a run away process that cools the Earth to a no return of freeze point that lasted for million of years
But, could this frozen event had been caused by an inclination of Earth orbit or something similar? Apparently, the Earth orbit goes in cycles of 100,000 years or so, where it goes to an extreme elliptic orbit that causes a deep freeze. We know that big eruptions trigger cooler period on Earth, because the ashes created a blanket that prevent heat from coming into the planet, okay? so how can big eruptions like the Siberian traps did not cause a snowball event? The key could be the amount of sulphur dioxide emitted by the eruption, the more this gas the worse: it interacts with water in the high atmosphere and refelct sunlight, plus it triggers acid rain, what a joy of lovely gas! No wonder it is related to the perfume of hell. Glacial Erratics, the rocks left after a glacier is melt, is a clear indication of Snowball events
The snowball event triggered the development of complex life (Larkey eruption in Iceland); 3 mya after snowball earth life had a massive explosion into multicellular organism, the key point to this evolution was the amount of oxygen; multicell organism create organs where designated cells to an specific function
Extinction 4 - (542 Mya) End-Ediacaran Extinction
The unconfirmed Massive Pre-Cambrian Impact Structure (MAPCIS), a 2000 km impact crater in central Australia, has been tentatively dated to this time period
Extinction 5 - (513-517 Mya) End-Botomian Extinction
Fossils indicated an extinction event between 513 to 509 Mya, with an estimate of decline in global diversity of 50% of marine species. The reason for this extinction are unknown, but again all points out to a high GFI index due to volcanic eruptions most likely in The Kalkarindji Large Igneous Province, Australia. The poisoned the sea and lead to a collapse of the phytoplankton, the base of the food change
Extinction 6 - (502-497 Mya) Dresbachian Extinction
This is another mass extinction close to the End-Botomian extinction, and also poorly documented due to the lack of fossils so far in the history of Life on our planet
Extinction 7 - (488 Mya) Cambrian-Ordovician Extinction
The reason for this extinction is not well understood by Science, but definitely it had something to do with the levels of O2 in the oceans, looks like their levels dropped. These are some of the species that were extinct during this event
Extinction 8 - (450-450 Mya) 86% of species lost: Ordovician-Silurian Extinction
At this time Life was restricted only to the oceans, and something happened to the oceans that increased their levels of metals and toxicity, maybe underground volcanos erupting? Fossils from that epoch shows deformities, as if affected by high level of heavy metals toxicity. Global cooling and sea level drop, possibly caused by a Gamma-ray burst https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma-ray_burst#Hypothetical_effects_on_Earth_in_the_past
Extinction 9 - (428 Mya) Ireviken event
Deep-ocean anoxia; Milankovitch cycles? The event is best recorded at Ireviken, Gotland, where over 50% of trilobite species became extinct; 80% of the global conodont species also become extinct in this interval
Extinction 10 - (424 Mya) Mulde event
The Mulde event was an anoxic event, and marked the second of three1 relatively minor mass extinctions (the Ireviken, Mulde, and Lau events) during the Silurian period. It coincided with a global drop in sea level, and is closely followed by an excursion[clarification needed] in geochemical isotopes.
Extinction 11 - (420 Mya) Lau event
The Lau event was the last of three relatively minor mass extinctions (the Ireviken, Mulde, and Lau events) during the Silurian period. It had a major effect on the conodont fauna, but barely scathed the graptolites. It coincided with a global low point in sea level, is closely followed by an excursion in geochemical isotopes in the ensuing late Ludfordian faunal stage and a change in depositional regime
Extinction 12 - (375 Mya) 86% of species lost :Late Devonian Extinction
Another great extinction in the seas, putting and end to the "Age of Fish", and given the fact that plants were already colonising the land, animals began to move to land too. Something completely collapsed the food chain at seas during this extinction. Cause by the Villuy Traps? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Devonian_extinction#Magmatism
Extinction 13 - (305 Mya) Carboniferous rainforest collapse
The Carboniferous rainforest collapse (CRC) was a minor extinction event that occurred around 305 million years ago in the Carboniferous period. It altered the vast coal forests that covered the equatorial region of Euramerica (Europe and America). This event may have fragmented the forests into isolated 'islands', which in turn caused dwarfism and, shortly after, extinction of many plant and animal species. Following the event, coal-forming tropical forests continued in large areas of the Earth, but their extent and composition were changed.
Extinction 14 - (270 Mya) Olson's Extinction
Olson's Extinction was a mass extinction that occurred 273 million years ago in the early Guadalupian of the Permian period and which predated the Permian–Triassic extinction event. It is named after Everett C. Olson. There was a hiatus and a sudden change in between the early Permian and middle/late Permian faunas. Since then this event has been realized across many groups, including plants, marine invertebrates, and tetrapods.
Extinction 15 - (260 Mya) End-Capitanian extinction event
The Capitanian extinction event was an extinction event that occurred around 260 million years ago during a period of decreased species richness and increased extinction rates in the late Middle Permian during the Guadalupian epoch. It is also known as the end-Guadalupian extinction event because of its initial recognition between the Guadalupian and Lopingian series; however, more refined stratigraphic study suggests that extinction peaks in many taxonomic groups occurred within the Guadalupian, in the latter half of the Capitanian age.
Extinction 16 - (252 - 250 Mya) 96% of species lost: The Great Permian Extinction
The Earth was scorched during the Permian extension, and is by far the closest Life has been to stop existing on planet Earth. The causes could have been the Siberina Traps, the Wilkes Land Crater, another Anoxic event or an Ice Age https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilkes_Land_crater
Extinction 17 - (234-230 Mya) The Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE)
Science doesn't know what caused, but they all agree that there was a time in the middle of the Triassic where it rain for....2 millions years! Heavy Rain all the times, every year for 2 million years. The ground was totally soaked in water. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnian_Pluvial_Event#Eruption_of_Wrangellia_flood_basalts
Extinction 18 - (200 Mya) 80% of species lost: End of Triassic Extinction
The Triassic–Jurassic (Tr-J) extinction event, sometimes called the end-Triassic extinction, marks the boundary between the Triassic and Jurassic periods, 201.3 million years ago, and is one of the major extinction events of the Phanerozoic eon, profoundly affecting life on land and in the oceans. In the seas, a whole class (conodonts) and 23–34% of marine genera disappeared. On land, all archosauromorphs other than crocodylomorphs, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs went extinct; some of the groups which died out were previously abundant, such as aetosaurs, phytosaurs, and rauisuchids. Some remaining therapsids and many of the large temnospondyl amphibians had gone extinct prior to the Jurassic as well. However, there is still much uncertainty regarding a connection between the Tr-J boundary and terrestrial vertebrates, due to a paucity of terrestrial fossils from the Rhaetian period of the Triassic. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Atlantic_magmatic_province
Central Atlantic Magmatic Province
Extinction 19 - (183 Mya) Toarcina turnover
The Toarcian turnover, alternatively the Toarcian extinction, the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction, or the Early Jurassic extinction, is the wave of extinctions that marked the end of the Pliensbachian age and the start of the Toarcian age of the Early Jurassic epoch, c. 183 million years ago. Probably caused by the Karoo-Ferrar? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karoo-Ferrar
Extinction 20 - (145 Mya) End-Jurassic (Tithonian) extinction
The Jurassic (from the Jura Mountains) is a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period 145 Mya.[note 1] The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic Era, also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction in the Early Jurassic, and the Tithonian event at the end; neither event ranks among the "Big Five" mass extinctions, however
Extinction 21 - (117 Mya) Aptian Exctintion
The Aptian extinction was an extinction event of the early Cretaceous Period. It is dated to c. 116 or 117 million years ago, in the middle of the Aptian stage of the geological time scale, and has sometimes been termed the mid-Aptian extinction event as a result. Could it had been caused by the Greater Ontong-Java Plateau? a Flood Basaltic Eruption
Extinction 22 - (94 Mya) Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event
The Caribbean large igneous province (CLIP) consists of a major flood basalt, which created this large igneous province (LIP). It is the source of the current large eastern Pacific oceanic plateau, of which the Caribbean-Colombian oceanic plateau is the tectonized remnant. The deeper levels of the plateau have been exposed on its margins at the North and South American plates. The volcanism took place between 139 and 69 million years ago, with the majority of activity appearing to lie between 95 and 88 Ma. The plateau volume has been estimated as on the order of 4 x 106 km³. It has been linked to the Galápagos hotspot. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cenomanian-Turonian_boundary_event
Extinction 23 - (66 Mya) 76% of species lost: End of Cretaceous and the Dinosaurs
set the whole planet ablaze, 70% of species died out. 65 Mya. K-T is the Cretaceous-T boundary, below the layer there are dinosous fossils, above the layer... none. Zumaya beach close to San Sebantias, took example on the KT and discover... uridum, a metal found in metoride and steroid; zenotes occurs in weakness on the bedrock ; nothing within 1,000 miles of the impact crater stood a chance, all was incinerated instantly. Superheated 2,000 miles an hours incinerated all within 1,000 miles radio. 90m tsuide high smashed in the coast areas at hundred of miles an hour; first super-heated firewall, then the mega-tshunami. Forest espontanelys combusted, as the drbris heated the atpmospere on re-entry, setting the whle planet on fire just mintues after the impact. For about 6 month, the ash completely blocked the sun, you could not have seen your hand in the middle of thenight. Temperaturs then dropped dramatically. Again, sulfuic acide began to rain , and sufult diaxoxe. The ash that blcoked the sun for 2/6 motnhs eventually fall down and clear, but then you have sulfur diaxide that reflect the sun from the upper atmosphre, which extensed the cold for about 2 years. Temepratures dropped by 5 degreess. The sulfur dioaxide... fall as acid rain burning absolyutel yeveryuing. The food change totally collpase., The asteroid hitted the worse part of the planet, becuase there are hight elevation of sufltur diaxide ad c02 locked in the shallow oceans of the Guld of Mexico. For the next 100 years the C02 hitted the planet by 20 degrees and all remaining species.. ended. The survival were ommnimovre, lived undergraund, no need of eggs, they keep their babies inside given them further protection until they're born. Birds (laying egg on high places) cocodriles (laying egg underground) and mammal (small creatures living underground) were the ones who survived
Extinction 24 (56 Mya) Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)
For 200,000 years the planet was without ice and forest were in the polar caps! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ldLBoErAhz4
caused by the NAIP? North Atlantic Igneous Province
Extinction 25 - (33.9 Mya) Eocene–Oligocene extinction event
The Eocene–Oligocene extinction event, the transition between the end of the Eocene (33.9 Ma) and the beginning of the Oligocene, is marked by large-scale extinction and floral and faunal turnover (although minor in comparison to the largest mass extinctions). Most of the affected organisms were marine or aquatic in nature. They included the last of the ancient cetaceans, the Archaeoceti. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Popigai_crater
Columbia River Basalt Group - 17-6 Mya, is this one extinction 16??
Extinction 26 - (14.5 Mya) Middle Miocene disruption
The term Middle Miocene disruption, alternatively the Middle Miocene extinction or Middle Miocene extinction peak, refers to a wave of extinctions of terrestrial and aquatic life forms that occurred around the middle of the Miocene, roughly 14 million years ago, during the Langhian stage of the Miocene. This era of extinction is believed to have been caused by a relatively steady period of cooling that resulted in the growth of ice sheet volumes globally, and the reestablishment of the ice of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Cooling that led to the Middle Miocene disruption is primarily attributed to orbitally paced changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation due to continental drift. These may have been amplified by CO2 being pulled out of the Earth's atmosphere by organic material before becoming caught in different locations like the Monterey Formation. This period was preceded by the Miocene Climatic Optimum, a period of relative warmth from 18 to 14 Ma
Extinction 27 - (5.3 Mya) Kapitean-Optian Glacial Event
This glaciation caused the straight of Gibraltar to close, drying the old Thesas Sea, now the Mediterranean Sea
Extinction 28 - (2 Mya) Pliocene–Pleistocene boundary extinction
In 2002, Narciso Benítez et al. calculated that roughly 2 million years ago, around the end of the Pliocene epoch, a group of bright O and B stars called the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association passed within 130 light-years of Earth and that one or more supernova explosions gave rise to a feature known as the Local Bubble. Such a close explosion could have damaged the Earth's ozone layer and caused the extinction of some ocean life (at its peak, a supernova of this size could have the same absolute magnitude as an entire galaxy of 200 billion stars). Radioactive iron-60 isotopes that have been found in ancient seabed deposits further back this hypothesis; as there are no natural sources for this radioactive isotope on Earth, so it must be of supernova origin. Furthermore, iron-60 residues point to a huge spike 2.6 million years ago, but an excess scattered over 10 million years can also be found, suggesting that there may have been multiple, relatively close supernovae.
Extinction 29 - (640,000 years ago) Quaternary extinction event
Among the main causes hypothesized by paleontologists are overkill by the widespread appearance of humans and natural climate change. A notable modern human presence first appeared during the Middle Pleistocene in Africa, and started to establish continuous, permanent populations in Eurasia and Australasia from 120,000 BCE and 63,000 BCE respectively, and the Americas from 22,000 BCE
Extinction 30 - (ongoing) Holocene Extinction
Caused by humans
Acid rain takes away carbon dioxise form the atmospherea and lock it in the ocean inthe form of limestones, this process is called weathering. Open sea absorve sun lgiht, keeping the ocean warm, but when snowball happens ice start taking over the sea, and it was actually reflecting sunlight thus cooling Earth even more. Single-cell bacterias were the only things that survived snowball Earth... how? Thermalvents must have come to a rescue; extremofiles where also living inside glacial caves
cyanobacterias change their DNA structure under extreme conditions, if you dry them for hudnred of years and then put water on them, after a few hours they're alive!
Permian 250 Mya, diictodon,
The "dead zone" is called the rock layers of the permina extensoin, where nofossils are found, the extension happens over a periods of 100.000 years (show me a mpa of the siberian traps) This reruption is called "flood basals", ehre a sea of lava cover a huge area. 1783.. the flood basals eruption in Lucky, southeern Iceland, could this have triggered (the gasses) the Little Ice Age? Sulfuric acid rain, when volcanos gases (sulfur dioxide) mixed with water.The 2nd deadly gas that volcanos emit, Co2, though is good for plants , their leafs have holes thta absorv Co2, and fossils in the permian extension shows that thhe holes were smaller meaning there was tons of C02 in the atmosphere, thus raising the temperatures a lot in the planet.So the siberian traps first cool and then heat up the planet; 50,000 years after the eruption of siberia the ocean began to die, O2 was removed from the oceans as rocks show. The Green Lake is an example of how the ocena die, due to the hydrogen sulfire levels in the wateer., the pink water is an indicative of organims that need that gas to survice, where oxigen is none. The hydrogen sufire rises from the bottom up, deleting the ocean from bottom to top, how is that possible? This could be cause by stagnated water, water that stop circulating, culd the ocean current have been shutdown? If so, then the water will not get oxygenated. The 5 degree up on temperature rises shutdonw the current and ocean's water stagnated, thus depelting the ocean, the oceans were warmer and stop circulateing.
Methae Hydrate, nohting more than Mehane frozen into solid, can be found almos everywhere at th bottom of the ocean; at the end of the permian extension, frozen methane was release as the ocenas got hotter, thus making the atmoshophere even hotter, creating a positive feedback cycle that heats the planet to dessert levels. Who are the 5% survivors of the Permian Extention? The cynodonts survived lived underground eating roots and tubers (Sough Africa Carew Basin) ; we all descent , mamals, reptiels and all, from cynodonts https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynodont ; one of the cynodots line became mammals
The Sun has been getting hotter as time passed by, given more energy for every sun-beam as the million of years were passing by. Photosynthesis is the gateway to Life as we know it, by far the most successful way of utilising energy, and it spread out all over the planet. Stromatolites are communities of bacteria that deposit limestone to form structures; stromatolites contains cyanobacteria, which have learnt to use the sunlight as their source of food and energy, splitting water molecules and freeing the O of H2O, creating oxygen as a by-product. That waste gas produce by cyanobacteria, oxygen, began to rust the oceans. Iron may have erupted from undersea volcanos, and all the iron was turn into iron ore and the whole of the oceans in the planet began to oxygenate due to photosynthesis. The Moon was receding, weather patters began to easy, days began to be longer, oxygen accumulated in the ocean jumped to the atmosphere, turning the reddish colour of the sky into a blue one, and that started a dance of Life vs Temperature vs level of O2+Co2 that still last today, with many extension occurring on our planet. We are all survivor on these extensions and they are key to understand the force that drove Life to evolve and for all entities to be so violent to certain degree and eat each other without compassion: we needed to live
Reverse of the magnetic field, whwat causes it? Is Life at risk in the middle of a reverse flux? Once every 200,000 years the flip occurs, and lots of radiation. goes into the surface at that time. The Inner Core, hotter than the outer, is solid. Does the center of the Earth function as a massive nuclear reactor? Do we have Uranios and Plutonium inside? Could Jupiter have them too? That gigantic planet generates twice as much radiation as it receives from the Sun. The Ort Cloud contains aroud 1 million comets, all on a very nestable orbit
Introduction to the Cyanobacteria https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/cyanointro.html
The History of Life on Earth https://www.astro.indiana.edu/gsimonel/build/History_of_Life.pdf
What is Iron Ore https://geology.com/rocks/iron-ore.shtml
Structure and Function of RNA https://courses.lumenlearning.com/microbiology/chapter/structure-and-function-of-rna/
Namibia: the stromatolites' last hurrah https://all-geo.org/highlyallochthonous/2007/06/namibia-the-stromatolites-last-hurrah/
The big five mass extinctions https://cosmosmagazine.com/palaeontology/big-five-extinctions
Welsh Cakes and Snotities https://www.sterling-adventures.co.uk/2009/01/14/welsh-cakes-and-snottites/
LUCA: Last Universal Common Ancestor https://earthhow.com/luca-last-universal-common-ancestor/
Ordovician-Silurian Mass Extinction: Causes, Evidence & Species https://study.com/academy/lesson/ordovician-silurian-mass-extinction-causes-evidence-species.html
New Theory for what caused Earth's Second-Largest mass extinction https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/09/15911-metals-extinction-ocean-oxygen-ordovician-silurian/
The Devonian extinction saw the oceans choke to death http://www.bbc.co.uk/earth/story/20150624-the-day-the-oceans-died
Arsenic-Eating Bacteria Opens New Possibilities for Alien Life https://www.space.com/158-arsenic-eating-bacteria-opens-possibilities-alien-life.html
Protein Structure https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/protein-structure-14122136/
A Climate Catastrophe paved the way for the Dinosaurs' Reign https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/10/dinosaurs-dolomites/573286/
If Co2 if only 0.04% of the atmosphere, how does it drives global warming? https://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2019/07/30/co2-drives-global-warming/
The secret of how Life on Earth began http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20161026-the-secret-of-how-life-on-earth-began
Let's stop for a minute and take a look at where we are. Life has now taken a stronghold in our planet and it seems nothing can remove it, it has been really persistent to all disaster that the random of events has put on its path, but what about the other goodies in the Solar System? Where any of the other planets or moons able to host Life at some point in their history timeline? In this chapter we'll explore what was happening to Jupiter and other planets while Life was playing cat & mouse with extinction on the surface of our planet
Jupiter is consider in Astrology as the Great Benefactor, and indeed it is for our planet... kind of. Jupiter, due to its immense gravity power, shield the inner rocky planets from incoming asteroid and comets, but also due to the same effect it can potentially send lethal others towards the inner solar system, as it is believed it was the Late Heavy Bombardment event. If we were to compact the last 4 billion of history on the Earth in 24 hours, the list will be as below, where some events where also happening around the Solar System
- 00:09 = Theias' impact, was it plunge to the Earth by Jupiter's gravity?
- 00:12 = LHB starts, was Jupiter the driving force of the Late Heavy Bombardment?
- 03:20 = first building block of Life
- 50:00 = LBH stops, was Jupiter also involved in the stop of this event?
- 08:00 = shallow seas with single bacteria
- 08:10 = oxygen crisis
- 08:12 = oxygen was present in the atmosphere
- 13:30 = oxygen starts to build up in the atmosphere
- 20:27 = snowball Earth
- 20:35 = after 25 million years, volcanos start melting Snowball Earth (Yellowstone in action?). The reversion, the warm up of the planet, took about 1 million years
- 21:09 = first multicellular organism
- 21:22 = first fish
- 21:40 = first insets
- 22:20 = first reptiles
- 22:40 = Siberian traps, Permian extension
- 22:50 = first dynosours
- 23:38 = asteroid impact, did Jupiter contribute to send this asteroid towards Earth?
- 23:40 = first primates
- 23:56 = 1st species of hominids
Mercury rotates the Sun i a very unique way, it is tidally locked but in a surprising a 3:2 orbit resonance, meaning during a year in Mercury one side faces the Sun once while the other side faces twice. One day is Mercury is really strange, if you happens to be on a spot in Mercury, it will take you 2 Mercury years (176 days) for the Sun to go around the sky once. Mercury rotation speed to itself is constant but the planet speeds up when it is at pheriheliosn the closest to the Sun. There was no chance of oceans ever forming in Mercury, it just doesn't have the gravitational pull to keep the water in, besides given its surface temperature of 400 degrees all will be but vaporised instantly. In spite of its small size, Mercury has a fair pull of gravity (due to its iron core) that allows it to have an exosphere which contains oxygen... hello? where did that oxygen came from? Impact with asteroids?
Always referred to as the "twin-planet", something really wrong happened in Venus for it to be as hellish as it is now. Venus and Earth orbits align in pair of 8 years but then don't happened again for over 100 years, so last time Venus transited the Sun were in 2004 and in 2012 but next time it will happens will be on December 10th 2117. Can we terraform Venus? The Sun gets hotter about 10% every billion years, if the extra heat produced by the Sun doomed Venus a couple of billion years ago, are we approaching the fate that Venus had quite soon?
This video of the heat generated by the Sun maybe is what happens to Venus 2 billion years ago, evaporating its oceans
Mars is red because is rusted, it seems it never experience an Oxygenation Event like that one on Earth. In Mars walking from the South pole to the North is downhill, as the North pole is several kilometres below the elevation of the South pole
Let's have a cool glance of what we have discovered so far in our solar system:
- The Sun ;solar spots? what cause them in specific cycles of 11 years? Why 11 years and not 3 for example?
- Titan ;it is like Earth at the beginning frozen in time; Titan contains liquid lakes of "gasoline" that might have formed by underground explosions, what causes these explosions? Why hydrocarbons are in Titan? This is yet another fascinating moon
Extension caused during human times
Back in the past, when Jupiter and Saturn felt into orbital resonance, they pushed Neptune out of its orbit, farther beyond Uranus, but how did that happen? And the Moons or Uranus, are they the product of the collision that title the axis of the planet? And from where that massive body that impacted Uranus came from?
400 millions years ago, a day was just 21 hours
Micros rules the Earth for 3 billion years
The Universe is hostile by nature. The bigger the planet the thinner the atmosphere, as the gravity is pinning it down to the ground, compacting the gases. No matter how advance or intelligent life reached to be, matter cannot be consciously transformed to light and therefore any civilisation will never advance a handful of light years away from their parent star, before they fade away. We are and we will be alone
Explosions may have formed lakes on Saturn's moon Titan ; http://www.astronomy.com/news/2019/09/explosions-may-have-formed-lakes-on-saturns-moon-titan
Venus: the hot, hellish & volcanic planet https://www.space.com/44-venus-second-planet-from-the-sun-brightest-planet-in-solar-system.html
Mercury Impact Craters https://www.britannica.com/place/Mercury-planet/Impact-craters
NASA's photo shows Mars' Grand Canyon in spectacular detail https://mymodernmet.com/valles-marineris-photo-nasa/
The difference between apes and chimpanzees is... nothing, about 98% what makes hairy while we're not that much.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_humid_period and the Richart structure
Apart from asteroids, these are the main killers of civilisations. Yellowstone Caldera exploded 630,000 years ago, and without any doubt Flood Basalt Eruptions are the devastating killers
Right after Theia, our atmosphere was composed of Co2, nitrtogen and water vapour, and all was an inmense ocean of liquified rock, nothing was solid.
LIfe is powered by normal chmical reactions, but how didi all start?
The pilbara, Australia, oldest place on earth
Granite is the base of the continents
Mineral Zircon, the oldest ever discover
4.3 billions years ago, evidence of water on Earth
IN the jupiter section, count for craters:
- Wolfe Creek create, in Australia, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGguwYPC32I&feature=emb_rel_end
Reincarnation is nothing more that the Carbon Cycle in action
Is it possible that the constant changing of atoms has helped develop intelliguent life in planet Earth? With Thea collission, life could have existed on a single continent, single ocean, and eveturally the DNAs of these criatures wil have disintegrated
Tepuis, in Venezuela, are uniques, left overs of Gondwana the primordial continent
If Life began with water, could the Universe also has strated as some kind of water?
Shark bay, in Wester Australia, is where you'd find stromatolites
The salt and Thesys
If we compare the magnificent explanation of Dr Brian Cox video about the creation of elements in s star with that pressure that a black hole suffers, we can determine that the pressure the 'singularity' elements have just a few miles down the surface of a black hole is nowhere as close as the intense pressure that the core endures. Yet, black holes don't explode, they have reached a level of stability by which no new elements are formed, "process zero" takes places in the center of a black hole,
The jovian Solar System
Why Jupiter at all? What is the habbitable zone in Jupiter? Why IO is so hot while Europa is dead frozen?
There have to be a dramatic collision to shuffle things up, otherwise the Earth might have evolved like Venus, with slow rotation, an atmosphere out of control and an ever increasing greenhouse effect that makes life impossible. The collision happened at the right time, when the Earth was just formed and its atmosphere was kind of complete. The collision wiped out the atmosphere from our planet, and a thinner one was created, and it just happens that a thinner atmosphere is more capable of harvesting life than a thick one like that of Venus
Metallyc Hydrogen is the key to generate the magnetosphera of Jupiter
Ruptura espontanea de la simetria = el lapiz que se cae
The inflation allowed the symatry to exist
The Mystique dance
So, for millions of years, supernovas were popping, how many of them? 100, 1,000, 10 to the power of 2? Each explosion send its elements across the galaxy, eventually they accumulated in our Sun
Trilobite started creating shells
The chemistry of the stars is the key
On the quiet corner
Okay, at this point of the article, we fast forward a few billion years and are now on our galaxy, our home. The Milky Way Galaxy is extremely beautiful. I have been fortunate enough of seeing it once, in the Ronda mountains of Spain, in a clear crispy night. Me and some friends were drunks walking down in the mountains, go get to the military compound where I was doing the army.
particles to assemble themselves, creating the element atom of them all, Hydrogen, just one proton, just one neutron and just one electron, what a family ah? Hydrogen is crush in the center, so by the pressure is start converting into Helium, it fusion into helium, which (being heavier than Hydrogen) sinks into the center of the star.
Supernovas, they need to explode for us to survive
If you think the earth is strange, see the peculiarities of our solar system neighbouts:
How old is Earth? https://www.space.com/24854-how-old-is-earth.html
Eruption of 535 ad, the end of the Minocians and a drop of temperature, the Aztec empire was affected too?
Astrobiology is a mixed Science discipline, combining Astronomy, Biology and also Geology to some extend, with the goal of determine how life arouse on planet Earth, and the possibilities of life existing in other planets or objects in the Universe
All research that I've done in this article has been done during my lunch breaks, dinner getaways and Sunday mornings, when I have the time to watch meaningful document videos and read interesting articles. I was getting frustrated and confused about what had really happened to life on Earth and how did we actually got here, so started this article to fix the puzzle and build a canvas to where I could lay down and express in broad light some of the questions I have, and perhaps from the answers work out some more useful interrogations. The ultimate answer? No, we'll never find it: each new answer leads to a brand new question, and the process continues like that until the infinite. This is called the limitation of the human mind
CrystalLinks, amazing website by Ellie Crystal: https://www.crystalinks.com/astrobiology.html
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Finally, in this last section of the article Why are we here? we embrace and explore the human brain with a first question of incredible transcendent: could all be a product of our imagination? Could we be right now have our brain in a cube, floating in a liquid, with hundred of sensors attached to a laboratory, that simulates the reality that we believe we live in?
El lago salado de Mexijo demuestra de cuando el lagmar retrocede
Could a magnetic shift of the poles have caused the big eruptions in syberia? https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-52550973
if an apple is an nucleos, the electrons will be a kilometer away, OMG! No wonder the Universe is soooo huge
80 different particles
We have to understand (and imagine) that at the Plank Time all the mater and energy of the Universe was on a single point.... all of the forces
23 after the beginning of the Big Bang, the Universe experience a process of inflation, an incredible expansion of all the energy. There must have been no matter at that stage, and just pure energy, and the following questions are to be asked:
The Plank Wall
Explore Asteroid belt, the ninth planet?
Links to read:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8PM1ZcyAzQ Ancient Civilizations
You Tube videos & interesting channels to subscribe:
Procastine lots, please, by viewing these amazing videos in almighty you tube creator of the Internet:
- Cool Worlds: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGHZpIpAWJQ-Jy_CeCdXhMA
- A Crash Course in Particle Physics (1 of 2) by Brian Cox: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HVxBdMxgVX0
- So what IS the Higgs bosson? by SciShow https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUnDsNL_5nk&t=1s
The Elements forged in Stars ; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uKqvjEE0wFg
One of the Sun's Sibling Stars has been found ; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XqzDdy26Oqw
How many other people have question this question? Do a graph of X vs Y with how many times life has 'reset' during its existence, plus the special condition prior and around the life of Earth that makes it suitable for Life