Blue Flower

Why are we here? Such a powerful question that, most likely, every human being that has ever existed has pondered that interrogation at some point in their life... and died or continue living without an answer. The irrefutable true is that nobody really has a flipping idea of why we are here, what are we actually doing here. All we have are theories, ideas, believes and feelings, but there is not yet a real, concise and scientific explanation that pleased everybody and answer the question of why are we here. That is one of the big mysteries in life: we have no idea of why we exist, no tangible proof that demonstrates our reason of existence, we only have theoretical concepts of vague purposes that changes from person to person, and yet most people continue living as if there was no tomorrow

I am not pretending to answer in this article such metaphysical, psychological and in many ways deeply religious question, of why are we here, everybody for sure will have somehow their own personal answer, each one of them valid and with a fundamental weight. If you decide to believe that you are here to help others through life and find love, that's fine, but who created others? who created the idea of helping one another? and why do we need helping? If you decide that you live for a special unique purpose, a "was-meant-to-be" force or reason that will always be right in your mind whichever course of action you take in this physical world, either left or right, that's fine, but what force is this? where did it originate? and why you find the need of having a purpose that guide your actions? The reality is that each person has an answer to the question of "what do you think you are doing in here?", but nobody really knows why are we here? Why we actually exist? Why we can ponder that question and why the sun is the way it is and not other? Nobody really knows, but what we can answer, however, is how we got here, and this is what I'll explore in this article. Neither do I support Nihilism or Existentialism (or Essentialism), doctrines that sustain that the Universe intrinsically has no meaning, nobody really knows. A torch has a meaning for us, right?

but perhaps, by finding out how we got here we can determine why we are here. Come with me, please, and let's do this journey of exploration together

All research that I've done in this article has been done during my lunch breaks and dinner getaways, when I have the time to watch meaningful document videos and read interesting articles. I was getting frustrated and confused about what had really happened to life on Earth and how did we actually got here, so started this article to fix the puzzle and build a canvas to where I could lay down and express in broad light some of the questions I have, and perhaps from the answers work out some more useful interrogations. The ultimate answer? No, we'll never find it: each new answer leads to a brand new question, and the process continues like that until the infinite. This is called the limitation of the human mind.

I've divided this journey of exploration into tree sections, each one of them covering a different aspect but obviously all of them related. First we'll explore the cause of existence of our Sun, then of our Earth and its unique characteristic of supporting life, and finally the flourish of our human race and the existence of the most complex structure in the whole Universe: our brains

Section 1, our star the Sun, without it nothing will be possible

  1. The Primeval Atom
  2. The grapefruit fluctuations at quantum level
  3. The inflation period
  4. The magic of hydrogen
  5. The Helios nebula

Section 2, the perfect position of planet Earth in the Universe, and the infinitesimal other 'accidents' that caused your existence

  1. The kiss of Theia 


Section 3, the abstract of your thoughts

The Universe is hostile by  nature, the bigger the planet the thinner the atmosphere, as the gravity is pinning it down to the ground


1. The Primeval Atom - 13.7 billions years ago 

Religion and Science, reason and faith, are not meant to be enemies, rather, they are two wonderful tools that, like fire and water, allow us to digest the wonders of this Universe. It was a man of God, father Georges Lemaitre, who first proposed the Big Bad Theory back in 1927, two years before Edwin Hubble, though all the credit for the expanding Universe has always been assigned to Hubble, partially because Lemaitre published his article in French, and was not well circulated among the Scientific Community at that time. Lemaitre called the beginning of the Universe the Primeval Atom. Absolutely everything that exist on the Universe was first compiled (that not compacted) into the size of an atom. Obviously, the Universe must have existed in a different state, not matter or space, to be able to achieve such a small size, to condensate all the energy into a zero-size state, and just to be picky, the "Primeval Atom" should be re-branded as the "Primeval Atom No-Size", because it wasn't an atom what was there at the beginning, it was a particle, a speck with no size. What was around that speck then? If we say nothing that actually implies something

The concept of the Primeval Atom means that absolutely everything is connected, all planets, stars , galaxies, and you and me, where once a form of energy coded in the algorithm of the Primeval Atom. This is fascinating, and personally to me it presents the following questions:

  • If the Primeval Atom was the beginning of everything, then everything must have an end, there is no concept of infinite. What happens is that we are too small to see the end, but there would be an end, just like there was a beginning. Everything dies, even stars and galaxies, the Principle of Entropy dictates that. So, how will the Universe die? Why are we here is only a temporarily question given the fact that, at some point in the future, nothing will be here. If there was a beginning, that implies that there must be an end or conclusion. We are not eternal, nothing is

  • How long was the Primeval Atom in that stage of codified information before it kicked the Big Bang reaction? Was it really energy that the Primeval Atom was composed of? We all know now that E=mc2 allows the matter to be exchanged with energy, and vice versa. This is why a tomato (matter) is nothing but the expression of the light of the Sun (energy). The tomato has the ability to transform energy into matter, thus to live. For this transformation to happens a medium needs to exists (rain and earth, in the case of the tomato). Analogically speaking, for the energy to be transformed into matter, a medium (space-time on this occasion) must exist. Therefore, could it have been the insufflation of space and time into the Universe the reason that causes its expansion/explosion from this single point of singularity?

  • What was around the Primeval Atom? Maybe more filaments of energy, all twisted together and somehow linked to the Primeval Atom. Science call the state of the Primeval Atom and its surrounds a "Singularity", basically a word to say that they have no idea of what is going on in there, no Laws being created, no Physics being defined, etc...but this is not quite correct: everything was already coded into the Primeval Atom, the Laws where there otherwise they would not have been created, just like everything single leaf and brunch of an oak is already coded inside the acorn seed

  • What caused the Primeval Atom to ignite? to expand? The only thing that seems to be missing on every singularity described by Science is the 1:1 composition of space-and-time that we perceive as our reality. Then again I ask, could that be the insufflation of space what caused the Big Bang? Expanding energy and allowing matter to be created as a consequence? And the time being a by-product of this insufflation?

Note that this picture below is actually incorrect, the expansion happened on a tridimensional scale, not in a 2D representation as the picture displays... if we happens to live on a 3D universe, why cannot we perceive pictures and data on a 3D scale too? Imagine the events of the picture below but in 3D... hard to get all the processes in your head ah? Is it our brain hard-coded to visualise data in 2D mostly? It seems 3D analysis doesn't come as natural

Picture credit:

A human being is created from DNA, and a massive Oak tree comes from a single Acorn, so we see examples (the same pattern all over the place) of code complied on small things (like the Primeval Atom) that then later on becoming more complex systems (like the Universe). If we develop this line of thought and observation, we can see that the oak generates thousands of acorns, each one of them can potentially create more oaks. Humans generates other humans, which in turn generates other humans. This escalated process of creation feeds on the environment: Suns creates other suns, which energy feeds the oaks, which acorns feeds the humans. It seems the Primeval Atom was the start of series of fireworks, with each atom bound to explode into a further fireworks, that fed an communicate to the others. Isn't this how chain-reaction radioactivity and molecular chemistry works? I'm just talking out aloud!

A billionth of a second after the Big Bang, the Universe inflated probably to the size of the Solar System. It was just pure energy, apparently in a liquid state perfectly harmoniously but with billions of degrees of temperature. Particles were moving so far in this "primordial homogeneous soup" that they could not assemble into any form (perhaps there were no particles at all, hence they couldn't assemble).  Then matter was created... and its anti-matter too! Then both annihilated each other (releasing yet even more energy), but it just happens that during this annihilation process there was slightly more matter than antimatter, why is that? This is what is called the Baryon Asymmetry, where you find a lot more electrons with negative charge than electrons (orbiting a nucleus) with positive charge. As yet, Science does not have a clue of why this happened, why the Universe is defined the way it is? Was there any kind of intelligent design process, at the very beginning, that favoured the mater over antimatter? Like some experts in Astrophysics would say: these question really matters


Still no explanation for Matter/Antimatter imbalance; 

Georges Lemaitre, el cura catolico que primero hablo del a teoria del Big Bag;

The matter-antimatter asymmetry problem 

George Lemaitre, The Scientist: 

The Tangled History of Big Bang Science:

The Life and Discoveries of Astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt:

Why is there more matter than antimatter? 


2. The grapefruit fluctuations at quantum level - 13.7 billions years ago minus 0.0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 seconds 

Apparently, this is as far as Science can go, before this time all goes into the unknown. The Plank Time (10 to the power of minus 43, in other words, 42 zeros and a one) is the moment at which Science encounters the so called Plank Wall, a circumstance/situation beyond which the laws of physics (as we know them) break down and cannot pass the wall, therefore we are completely unable to explain what was going on beyond that point. Nothing make sense passing the frontier of the Plank Wall, just as nothing makes sense when we cross the Event Horizon of a black hole. After the Plank Wall and beyond the Event Horizon we find the same thing: singularity, in other words, a situation where all of the major 4 forces in nature that we know (and obviously their formulas) are useless at explaining us what's happening. These powerful well-known 4 forces are:

  • Gravity, discovered by Newton, and yeah, fine-tune by Einstein through Relativity, where he merges acceleration + gravity through his Field Equations
  • Electromagnetic Radiation, EMR for short, defined by Scottish scientist Maxwell back in 1865 (built on the genius of Michael Faraday). The force of Electromagnetism holds the electrons around the atomic nucleolus, so if we extrapolate this force to the HUGE, this will be like gravity as the planets (electrons) are held against the nucleus (the sun) of an atom, a solar system
  • Strong Nuclear Force ;in the world (or shall we use universe by itself) of Quantum Mechanics this force is responsible of holding the nucleus of an atom together, representing 98% of the mass of an atom, as it is holding the protons and the neutrons together
  • Weak Nuclear Force ;wait a minute.... strong and weak nuclear forces? separated? why not strong and weak gravitational forces too? This weak nuclear force exist in the atom, and it seems it converts Neutrons and/or Protons into Positrons which are nothing but Electrons with a positive charge; this process is called radioactive decay, which to me sound similar to the matter-antimatter annihilation. Electro-weak force is another force that merges electromagnetism and the weak forces, cool ah?

Gravity is so weak in the sub-atomic world that is literally ignore by quantum physics, why is that? All scientist suspect and dream of unifying all these forces together and achieve in that way an harmonious and unified explanation of the Universe, a compelling Standard Model that will explain everything from all angles. Good luck with that guys and gals! Just remember to have patience, our current human brains (at least the ordinary ones like me) can take up to nine bits of information at most, for example, if I was to tell you to look to this string of 12 characters only for 3 seconds and then try to memorise it: (FBIFTBBCUSSR), that will be very hard, but if I chop the info into 4 bits of information only (FBI - FT - BBC - USSR) you surely will memorise it quicker. Hopefully, in a few centuries from now, when our cortex evolve even more (of course, as long as the human race still survives) we shall be able to embrace naturally complex mathematical formulas, more bits of information and adapt simple solutions to the Cosmos riddle that at present we can only digest using computational power

Now, coming back to the 4 fantastic forces, consider other significant aspects of the Universe: the areas where these forces do take place and manifest:

  • Time
  • Space
  • Dimensions

Yeah, time and space create Dimensions, and you might argue that we don't need to include Dimensions as a separated entity, but apparently (mathematically) there have been proved the existence of dimensions without time or space involved into them. For decades scientists have been trying to "create" a Common Theory, a all-in-one mathematical model that could merge these forces into one... precisely what happened at the Big Bang, where all these forces where compiled/coded into a single point of infinite density. Given the fact that we are in this Universe which is expanding from a single point in the past, something or someone must have compacted/compiled them before, who or what was that? What caused the Big Bang? How long was it there before it exploded? I guess not long at all, otherwise the heat of that singularity will have disintegrated/vaporised everything

I love this well explanatory video from professor Brian P. Schmidt (50' long but worth every minute), where he gives a nice introduction to Dark Matter (slows the expansion) and Dark Energy (accelerates the expansion). It makes you wonder at the end what will win? Dark Energy or Dark Matter? in any case... the future looks Dark

  • How the four fundamental forces separated? What supreme force could have possible merge all of them together? As far as we know it, a Black Hole seems to be the only entity capable of absorbing matter, its energy and presumably the forces associated with the engulfed matter. If space is being absorbed by a black hole, we shall assume that time is absorbed too! Could a massive unique black hole being the origin of the Universe?
  • So we are basically made of random stuff! If we assume that the tiny quantum fluctuations was the ultimate cause that our galaxy is where it is and not a cloud of particles unable to be formed by the pull of gravity (dark matter?), then absolutely everything that happens around us is pure random, just like when you let go a glass of wine out of the table, it breaks and spill the wine totally at random, just like that the galaxies seems to have been arranged in our Universe
  • The Electron, discovered in 1896, is by far the more peculiar 'particle' that we have observed. Since then, scientists have observed a zoo of particles, more than 80 and still counting! They are going crazy smashing particles against one another and cataloguing the debris of the collision. Are they wasting their time? First of all, does any of the particles that exist nowadays in the Universe has even the most remote similarity (not to mention the temperature) of those daddies particles that were at the beginning and shortly after the creation of the Universe? If I decide to smash 2 cars together, will I expect to find "mini-cars" in the debris that is generated after the mighty collision? There must be another way of doing things, but then again... what the hell do I know?


Of Particular Significance, Matt Strassler 

Fundamental Interaction ;  

Primeval Atom 

How far is the edge of the Universe from the farthest galaxy? 

Heisenberg uncertainty principle;

Common Interpretation of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is proved false ; 


3. The inflation period - 13.7 billions years ago minus 0.000000000000000000000000000000001 seconds

This is it, this is the Universe into motion: whatever you thought in the past determines your future. In the same way, how the Universe was "compacted" in its origins has determines the way it is expanding now, the filaments over which the galaxies have blossom into existence. Apparently the "inflation" period started 10 minus 32 seconds after the creation of the Universe, after the first injection of space into the Universe, if I may say. otherwise (if space is not created at the time of inflation), was space always there? When does space actually come into existence?

Do not confuse inflation vs expansion, they are very different things. We may argue that the Big Bang is a wrong, a very wrong concept, as it kind of implies by the linguistics of the word 'bang' that there was of kind of explosion. In reality, what it could have happens is an "inflation", an uniform and unilateral expansion of space-time equally in all directions. That explains why the CBM (Cosmic Background Microwave Radiation) is uniformly distributed no matter where you're in the Universe. This can also explains why the Higgs Boson causes the mass of your body to be exactly the same whether you are on Earth or on the other side of the Galaxy, this is because (apparently)  the Higgs Boson is uniformly distributed and interacts with particles, hence given them mass, so your body weights the same here in planet Earth as well as when you are on planet GH6734 in the Andromeda Galaxy, as long as planet GH6734 has the same as Earth applying over your body. This means that there is a common distribution of the same amount of Higgs Boson across the Universe. Where does this uniform flat-universe of particles originated? Yeah, you got it, from the inflation, that by definition "inflates" something in an harmonious, equilibrium, symmetry manner in all directions.

I love the You Tube Channel "Space Time", with Matt O'Dowd. Many videos like this one are worth watching more than once: 



  • I believe this does not happen naturally. Unless is human induced, what kind of thing can you see in the Universe that "inflates" distributing evenly across its surface expansion? Normally all is very chaotic, and depending of the amount of fluctuations particles at quantum level, the expansion favours the distribution of stuff towards one way or another. Could a sort of lab experiment have caused this, inflation of a compressed energy point? 
  • What stopped the inflation? Did the Universe run out of the initial energy? Why did it "mutated" from inflation to expansion. Looks like the inflation was the 'release' of stuff that previously was compacted, and one free it inflated first and then expanded, allowing us to observe the expansion of the Cosmos that we see today
  • So we can argue that the 4 fundamental forces were actually dissolved once the inflation period finished, during the inflation period there were no atoms and that could interact with the forces, and all there was  were quarks and particles separating their plank distances from one another as the space was introduced, separating their distances we may say by the primitive dark energy that inhabits the empty space in between the particles
  • Could it be that all of this happened at once? There was no inflation, but just a cubic of energy that all of the sudden (half of it or so) converted into matter, and then after this conversion/transformation it expanded. This transmutation of empty space into particles works well (right?) with the dark energy principle, as if the dark energy becomes white energy, a bit unstable and pop these particles into existence. And why so many different particles? As the inflation was happening, those early particles must have been smashing against once another, hence creating the zoo of particles the LHC detects nowadays? 
  • The Cosmic Inflation was happening at many times the speed of light, so was it the particles pushing one another and growing larger (proactive inflation) or was the space in between the particles separating them (reactive inflation)? Obviously, the force of inflation (inflaforce?) was much stronger than any other known force, there was no black holes during this period, neither stars formation of course
  • Unbelievable short, the Cosmic Inflation lasted a picosecond, a fraction of a second


The Higgs boson, by Heather Gray and Bruno Mansoulie 

Cosmic Inflation, by Karl Tate 

Cosmic Inflation 

Inflation for beginners by John Gribbin

Alan Guth  

What was it like when the Universe was inflating ;


4. The magic of hydrogen - 3 minutes after big bang to 1 billion years

The great Professor Carl Sagan (his 1980s series "Cosmos" marked my childhood, thank you!) once said that "we are all made of star dust", and Professor Michio Kaku has said that "our destiny is tight to the destiny of the stars". This Universe is not ours, this is a Universe of stars, they're the real protagonist and we're just the spectators of their cosmic display of their birth, evolution and death. And what are stars made of? From the magic element of hydrogen

The first 3 minutes of the Universe, according to Science, was a roller-coaster of activity, with the temperature of the plasma/energetic cloud coming down dramatically and particles being formed and assembled together. These first 3 minutes are called Big Bang Nucleosynthesis -BBN- and is when all the hydrogen in the Universe was formed (I guess it should have being named differently, to differentiate it from Stellar Nucleosynthesis -SN-). During these first 3 minutes some helium was formed too, so now we have hydrogen (very simple, just one proton) and helium (the second in the scale, with 2 protons) plus gravity, and it just happens that hydrogen interacts with itself and with helium, and together with gravity they form... you got it, a nuclear combustion: a star

It is really interesting to see and understand the evolution of any given star, as they are the ones who really rule the Universe, who formed galaxies, spirals, create light and give us all of the elements that form life and the reality as we perceive it. Why its life cycle is so precisely defined? Who design it? Those first 3 minutes of the Universe were absolutely critical, according to Science this is when matter and antimatter (or something similar between these two terms) annihilated, creating in the aftermath of the collisions the byproduct of radiation and the particles of matter as we perceive them today

 Picture credit: 

Have another look at the picture above. The only thing missing is the time scale that identifies each one of the phases. The sections "death" only last an instant, while the "remnant" is for eternity. Life is ONLY possible around the stars type "Low Mass yellow" (our Sun type) and possible "Brown Draft" too. The other stars are too violent, too unstable and emitting too much gamma rays for life to have a chance to evolve to intelligent beings. Take another look at the picture above again, and notice that "Black Holes" are a consequence of massive stars containing over 40 times the solar mass. So yes, all the objects we have in the sky are different representations of the transformation of stars

Scientists believe that 20 minutes after the inflation finished (Big Bang step 2 started) the Universe was cold enough for hydrogen clouds to compact by the force of gravity, igniting their core and creating massive protostars. So this is when the first black holes must have been created, right? Incredibly huge stars that exploded when the hydrogen at their centers was exhausted, and the left over ashes that had been created (layers of helium, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, etc) did not allow the outer hydrogen of the star to come and rescue the center, supplying hydrogen to it. Without the hydrogen, without the energy to fusion, gravity crashed all of the elements and a black hole is formed. The gargantuan shock-waves of its creation causes the star to explode. This all looks very cool, with the only problem that this theory cannot create stars as big as for example Betelgeuse, which if it were to replace the sun its circumference will reach all the way up to Jupiter's orbit.  How such big and bigger stars like that can formed when the minute the gas is compacted it ignites, and pushes all other gases away? Something is still missing in the understanding of star formation, but whatever the process is, it definitely seems to be pretty close to what scientist believe it is now

  1. Go and repeat the above process millions, literately millions of times
  2. You need to have millions, literately millions of years for this process of star-life-cycle to be repeated millions of times
  3. Eventually, a black hole will gather enough matter around it
  4. Eventually, the matter around the black hole will form spirals, as it orbits it
  5. Eventually, supernovas will continue popping up, disruption these spirals and blasting materials at random directions
  6. Eventually, this material again will be attracted by the force of gravity, and through millions of years will fall to form spiral arms around the black hole
  7. Eventually, a galaxy will form, our galaxy

How long for this process to occur? Well, approximately for the shape of our galaxy to form it will take less than a 1 billion years since the creation of the Universe, give or take a couple of centuries. After that time the structured of the Milky Way was pretty much defined by the hydrogen that accumulated around the accretion disk... but the formation of our Solar System was still very far away. Many more supernovas and supernovae needed to spark before even the random nebula of what it would be our sun started to form

Sagittarius A*, the black hole that sustains our galaxy, must have formed pretty early in the history of the Universe, for it to held our galaxy at the tender age of just below 1 billion years. According to scientists, the first massive stars began to shine as soon at the temperature of the Universe dropped, and the space in between the atoms, the 'fog' of the early Universe, allowed for the hydrogen to collapse and the formation of stars. That was as soon as 200 million years after the Big Bang, pretty much as soon as possible for Universe's standards


One of the many, many amazing videos of Manchester University's Professor Brian Cox:  

And here two simulations of how our Milky Way Galaxy must have formed. Be my guest and pick your choice! Both simulations are understood to start at 1 billion years old Universe and finished at 9.1 billions years old, just on time for our Sun to ignite, meaning that both videos comprise a 8.1 billions years of gravity pulling, stars forming and dying and hydrogen dancing
Be brave and play these 2 videos at the same time, is cool!


  • Why is it that the simplest elements ever contain so much energy? For example liquid hydrogen is use for rocket fuel, and its atom is very simplistic, just one proton, one neutron and one electron, the simplest form of matter yet the closest to pure energy that we know. Compare this atom with the the uranium atom is the opposite side of the scale. Uranium has 92 protons and 92 electrons... if with one-proton-atom we can create hydrogen fuel that allow us to go to space, how far can we go with a ninety-two-proton-atom? Are fusion and fission so incompatible? Why cannot we get an energy source that cycle in between the two methods? hydrogen and uranium?
  • Based on the Stellar Life Cycle... black holes are the result of hydrogen being transformed and compressed. If everything come from hydrogen fusion, that means that the black holes somehow are the ultimate result of fusion hydrogen. It is not gravity what sucks all the material into a black hole, it is the strong nuclear force of the material that the black hole is made of what attracts the falling atoms. Could that be true? Black hole do have space, because they have a mass and therefore must have a space for this mass to exist
  • The massive black hole of galaxy Holmberg 15A is 3 times bigger than our solar system: Undoubtedly, the strength of such gravitational field projected by this gigantic black hole must cause an influence on the space of the galaxy where it is, and therefore the Universe. Could the formation of black holes act as 'break' to slow down the expansion of the Universe? Or is the Universe actually accelerating because of a decreasing rate of black hole formation? 
  • Sagittarius A* is estimated to be 6 millions as massive as the Sun. No way such massive black hole created from a single star, the supernova shock-waves capable of generated a 6 millions mass black hole would probably have shred the galaxy apart! Therefore our local black hole must have been the merging of more than one black holes. Is that phenomena so recurring? Are we living in an Universe where really black holes are the ruling guys and not the shinny stars? Given the fact we can't see/detect them directly, there could possible be millions of these guys circling the spiral arms of the galaxy, slowly moving inwards to the bulge in collision course to Sag A*
  • In about 4 billions years, if you are still around, get your shades and prepare for the collision of Andromeda vs 'Via Lactea' galaxies. Are their respective massive black holes attracting to one another? What has originated this collision path, and why hasn't it occurred in the last 13.7 billions years? Without giving much thought to that, it is obvious that both galaxies are been attracted to each other become of the pull of their respective black holes, the only guys with enough strength to move galaxies across empty space. Are we talking here about a new gravity force specifically bounded to black holes? If normal gravity causes the Earth to rotate around the Sun by "falling" into the space-time fabric, could these two black holes of Andromeda and The Milky Way by pulling one another by "eating" the space in between the galaxies? 




Where did all the elements come from? 

Blogging the Periodic Table, by Sam Kean; 

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis 

Chronology of the Universe 

Origins of the Elements  

The Element Hydrogen 

Why did the Universe start off with Hydrogen, Helium and not much else?  

Mily Way age narrowed down ;  

Big problem in star formation theory solved?  


5. The Helios nebula - 1 billions years to 9.1 billions years after the big bang

The semantic of the word 'nebula' can be used to describe both the death of a star as well as the birth of new others. Our Sun, according to Science, is a third generation star, meaning that the hydrogen it contains has already experience the interaction with at least two previous stars, now gone. All the hydrogen in the Sun must have suffered the blast and gamma rays flood of at least two previous supernovas or supernovae, causing it to compact and contract in the third generation star that is our Sun. The first generations stars were the first ones ever to have been formed, and all of them must have (being initially so massive) exploded into supernovas, leaving behind either black holes or neutron stars. Then the 2nd generations stars were formed from the leftovers of the first generation stars. They burnt much slowly but eventually they too collapsed or interacted with one another, exploding into yet again more supernovas or transforming themselves into white dwarf stars from which detritus our Sun formed, a third generation star. It is estimated that 3 to 5 new stars form every year just in the Milky Way, all of them being 3rd generation or even beyond stars

Our Sun must have been part of a Nebula when it was young, which other stars where part of that nebula? At present our closest star is Proxima Centauri, at just 4.2 light years away, but it has been the closest for only the last 32,000 years, that is 0.032 of the 4.6 billions years of age of the Sun, absolutely nothing! The Gaia spacecraft seems to have found so far at least 2 x stars that have the same elements signature composition as our sun, meaning that they were form in the same nursery Nebula. One of them is called "HD 162826" and the other one "HD 186302", the former being 110 light years way while the other about 184 light years away.... pretty long distances for our closest related sun-family

During my research, I did not find a specific name for the nebula where our sun was born, so I'll call this nebula "Helios Nebula" , and is a big mystery in Science, we cannot go back 4.6 billions years ago to figure out how many stars where in this nebula, where the gas and dust came from, how many supernovas where needed, any black holes around, etc. What is left from this"Helios Nebula", the nebula where our Sun was created? Go and figure, the time scale is enormous. In these 4.6 billions years lots of stars, drifting in space, have passed through our Sun neighbourhood.

This video, which expand 10 light years only, shows the current vicinity of stars around our Sun; notice the prominent position of the bright Sirius at just 8.6 light years away:


The Sun has only circle the Milky Way 22 times since its creation. When our Sun ignited in the galaxy, the milky way was 9.1 billion years old, and this is it: after the Sun ignited no more hydrogen will come to its rescue, once it burns it all that will be the end of it, the life of our Sun is determined by the amount of hydrogen used in its creation, and in that sense hydrogen equals time. That also means that there is no more creation of new materials that can be "broadcast" by the sun, unless from extraterrestrial source (which probably will be older) all of the atoms that you see around you and in planet earth are at least 4.6 billions years old or older. So yes, technically you look pretty good for all of your atoms to be 4.6 billions years old, just imagine in how many "entities" have your atoms resided and animated before they chose to sustain your body and its you hate spiders? Where your atoms perhaps part of a butterfly in the Pleistocene -2.5 millions years ago- that was eating by a spider? Could this refinements of atoms be an conductor to 'tune' the atoms and allows them to host abstracts thoughts, able to ponder about their own existence? Hummm, it makes you think

Okay, jumping to the unstoppable road of Science towards enlightenment, let's face now another big bump: in Science the theories need to be proved and tested, and the theory that the Sun formed out of a Nebula and that the solar system formed out of the cloud of gas around the Sun, like an accretion disk, seems to be a pile of shit, there are still lots of things that we don't understand, and a lot more research needs to be done on this area. For example, this theory doesn't explain the behaviour of hydrogen: gravity cannot compact it to such extend that it ignites, the hydrogen tend to expand (as long as it has space) when it is compacted because it gets hot, further more when it gets compacted it turns to liquid: why did it not turn to liquid into space, to plasma? There must have been another chemical reaction or another element that caused the hydrogen to ignite, the answer of compacting by gravity is not good enough. Could there be the supernova factors the one that "pushed" the clouds to create stars?

One of the main issues of the solar system cloud-theory is the position of Jupiter and Saturn, the gas giants: they cannot had formed in the position where they are now, if they formed by a circling spinning of gas that "eventually" compacted, that far away from the sun the gas will spin very slow and it will take, if ever, 20 times the age of the Universe for the gas to compact into a planet. This problem gets extrapolated to the insanity when we consider the position of the other two gas giants: Uranus and Neptune, both so far away from the sun that it is impossible a distant remnant of a cloud-like could have been formed them just by gravity. But undoubtedly, they are there, they were created. What other forces were involved in the gas giants creation? To solve this problem scientist use a very (to my opinion) naive and simplistic answer: "okay, then the gas giants must have formed closer to the Sun and the "migrated" or "shifted" afterwards".... Hello? Seriously? Where did the rocky planets went while this migration took place? The force of the migration would have pushed the Earth out of the solar system. What could have caused this migration anyway? A by-passing star? If so, why didn't it affect at all to the rocky planets? Could it be, I wonder, that when the Sun ignited, all the planets were formed and the solar-wind pushed the planets away? If not, does it means that our solar system is unique due its formation, where the big boys migrate leaving the space for the small ones to thrive, undisturbed, and eventually create life? And due to this unique migration, does it render life a extraordinary one-time only event in the Universe? Yes, indeed more research is needed to solve the so many inconsistencies we have in the Helios Nebula chapter

I'd like to share this video of Barry Setterfield, where he raised some legitimate questions that yeap... some of them are not quite answered yet by Science and they need to be. Remember guys and gals: we need to understand how the Universe is, and not to change the Universe so that it can fit our current understanding



  • Of the two twin stars to our Sun that Science has found so far, do they have rocky planets like Earth that can sustain life? We must find out whether life-like-earth is a unique rare and once in a lifetime Universe event or is commonly widespread across the Cosmos. Either way, with these stars being at over 100 light years away, chances are any Earth 2.0 they might host are totally out of reach
  • When the sun ignited, was the Earth formed? Probably yes, it must have been frozen cold, far away from the image of "hot molten surface" that many sources picture the early Earth like. Science has dated the age of the Earth at 4.4 billions years old based on zircon crystal found in the Australia, in the surface of the planet... Is the surface is 4.4 billion years old the interior must be older, right? My point is why do we assume that the Sun has to be formed first and then after the planets? Maybe the Earth was a protoplanet, 70% of its size long before the sun ignited. Can somebody explain me why are we assuming that the Earth formed after the Sun was grown up and shinning? 
  • So... where is the black hole and/or neutron star that created our Sun? It is not hidden under the carpet! It must be somewhere pretty close... and yes it is. The star Sirius A, which is 8.6 light years away, has a small companion called Sirius B, small draft star that could well be the remaining grandfather or our Sun. Does the sun spins around Sirius?



How can there be 1,000 stellar ancestors before our Sun? 

Alpha Centauri: Closest star to Earth ; 

Proxima Centauri, distance and motion ;  

Gaia's surprising discoveries 


List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs

HD 162826 

HD 186302 

Death Spiral: Why Theorists Can’t Make Solar Systems  ;

Solar System formation problems ; 

Solar system formation by accretion has no observational evidence ; 



Let's cover now in Section 2 the shaping of planet Earth and its peculiarities

The kiss of Theia - 4.5 billion years ago

At this point of the article we reach a state where the Earth is formed... kind this moment we should call our beloved planet Earth minus 1 (also called Gaia by scientists, but I much prefer to use the name Gaia for our current planet). This, our "planet-to-be" is about to face one of the most significant transformation that makes it the special home in the Cosmos that we know it today: the only planet where life exist. It all started 4.5 billions years ago, when Earth -1 was hit by a planet the size of planet Mars, to what would be (we hope) the last planetary collision that formed planet Earth, Gaia. It is thought that the inner solar system must have been a very crowed place, with about 20 planets down to the 4 rocky planets that we know today (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and maybe the asteroids belt too), therefore collisions must have happened in the past to reduce that number from 20 to 4. Only collisions with other big objects can explain why the Earth is spinning so fast, while Venus... rotate backwards, in retrograde mode; this sort of collisions can also explain why Earth is the biggest of the inner rocky planets while Mercury, who probably had very few collisions, is tiny is comparison to Earth

This is Theia, the last planet (so far) that had collided with planet Earth, for millions of years our planet had rings, just like Saturn

It is still very debatable how the Earth -1 formed, whether the accretion disk theory is valid or not, but without any doubt (you can feel it under your feet) the Earth formed, and massive collisions with other planets, fighting all for a undisrupted space to orbit around the Sun, must have happened in the past. The picture below is a theorise aspect of how the Solar System would have looked 4.6 billions years ago or so, with nearly 20 planets rotating the sun. Where did all this rocky material came from? Must have been orbiting around the nebula from which the Sun's hydrogen collapsed and ignited. Maybe hydrogen in space behaves differently and it can actually compact an ignite in the vacuum


In any case, it is thought that, at the time of this last mayor collision of planet Earth, its surface was completely melted, as if it has already experience very recently other significant impacts. Only this state of liquefied rock on the surface of the Earth can explain why the Moon density and rocks composition are so close to those found in the surface of our planet. The planet that collided with Earth was called Theia, wisely named after the Greek mythology mother of the Moon. In this picture below you see at scale a representation of Earth, Mars and the Moon, so you get the idea of how a planet the size of Mars hit our planet (in the picture below it size must have been smaller), and from that collision an object the size of the Moon sprung out

Here comes the most noticeable thing that determine our planet as a very rare planet in our Cosmos. When the Earth was pretty young, there is a theory that explains why the Moon exist and why there is so much iron in the terrestrial core. The history goes that a planet (called Thea) hit the Earth, and from the debris the Moon was created. You might argue that this event does not make Earth special, as there must be many collisions in the Universe similar to that of Earth vs Thea... however... for life to exist after the collision like it did on Earth, the following factors must all be met:

  • There have to be a collision, otherwise the Earth might have evolved like Venus, with its atmosphere out of control and ever increasing
  • Thea was the size of planet Mars (1/3 of Earth), had it been smaller the collision would have not created the Moon, had it been bigger the collision might have split the Earth in two planets
  • Thea was travelling at the right speed for the collision to be kind of "gentle", had it been faster probably the debris (and hence the Moon after the collision) would have been flown away Earth's gravity, had it been slower and the debris would have fallen into the Earth
  • Thea was composed of the right materials: rock and iron. After the collision the iron of Thea was absorbed by the Earth, strengthening the magnetic field of our planet that make it repel the gamma rays of the Sun

  • Thea hit with the right angle. The collision wasn't head-to-head, had it been like that it would have split the planet
  • The collision happened at the right time, when the Earth was just formed and its atmosphere was kind of complete. The collision wiped out the atmosphere, and a thinner one was created.

impact off-center angle

the likelihood of an impact like this, the earth was spinning 5/6 hours a day, an athmosphere of vaporise rock

MOst of the videos an documentaries you see show a hot earth but that could very well be wrong 

10 miles a secons is the speed Theia was travelling


 Thanks to the collision the Earth spinned quite rapdly, had not been a collision the Earth probaly would be rotation as slow as Venus rotates nowasdays

Had not existed the Moon after the collision, the bubbling of the Earth would have make it impossible for life to be develop, as the poles would have drifted dramatically


References (Theia)

NASA Study: Moon is made of material from Earth, not Theia 

How was the Moon formed? 

Giant Impact Hypothesis: an evolving legacy of Apollo


The spark of life

What is the oldest evidence of life on Earth?  

 Is it possible that the constant changing of atoms has helped develop intelliguent life in planet Earth? With Thea collission, life could have existed on a single continent, single ocean, and eveturally the DNAs of these criatures wil have disintegrated

Planet Ice

The salt and Thesys


The jovian Solar System

Why Jupiter at all? What is the habbitable zone in Jupiter? Why IO is so hot while Europa is dead frozen?


Metallyc Hydrogen is the key to generate the magnetosphera of Jupiter

 Ruptura espontanea de la simetria = el lapiz que se cae

The inflation allowed the symatry to exist

The Mystique dance

So, for millions of years, supernovas were popping, how many of them? 100, 1,000, 10 to the power of 2? Each explosion send its elements across the galaxy, eventually they accumulated in our Sun


The chemistry of the stars is the key


On the quiet corner

Okay, at this point of the article, we fast forward a few billion years and are now on our galaxy, our home. The Milky Way Galaxy is extremely beautiful. I have been fortunate enough of seeing it once, in the Ronda mountains of Spain, in a clear crispy night. Me and some friends were drunks walking down in the mountains, go get to the military compound where I was doing the army.

particles to assemble themselves, creating the element atom of them all, Hydrogen, just one proton, just one neutron and just one electron, what a family ah? Hydrogen is crush in the center, so by the pressure is start converting into Helium, it fusion into helium, which (being heavier than Hydrogen) sinks into the center of the star.


Supernovas, they need to explode for us to survive

 If you think the earth is strange, see the peculiarities of our solar system neighbouts:




How old is Earth?  


The Great Benefactor, Jupiter

This is how Astrology know the planet Jupiter, as the Great Benefactor. 

Let's have a cool glance of what we have discovered so far in our solar system:

  • The Sun ;solar spots? what cause them in specific cycles of 11 years? Why 11 years and not 3 for example? 
  • Mercury
  • Titan ;it is like Earth at the beginning frozen in time; Titan contains liquid lakes of "gasoline" that might have formed by underground explosions, what causes these explosions? Why hydrocarbons are in Titan?  This is yet another fascinating moon



Explosions may have formed lakes on Saturn's moon Titan



The spark of life

Astrobiology is a mixed Science discipline, combining Astronomy, Biology and also Geology to some extend, with the goal of determine how life arouse on planet Earth, and the possibilities of life existing in other planets or objects in the Universe



CrystalLinks, amazing website by Ellie Crystal:


In the wrong side of the Congo 

The difference between apes and chimpanzes



History of Earth undisclosed: 

El lago salado de Mexijo demuestra de cuando el lagmar retrocede



if an apple is an nucleos, the electrons will be a kilometer away, OMG! No wonder the Universe is soooo huge

80 different particles

We have to understand (and imagine) that at the Plank Time all the mater and energy of the Universe was on a single point.... all of the forces

23 after the beginning of the Big Bang, the Universe experience a process of inflation, an incredible expansion of all the energy. There must have been no matter at that stage, and just pure energy, and the following questions are to be asked:

 The Plank Wall

 Explore Asteroid belt, the ninth planet?

Links to read: Ancient Civilizations 

You Tube videos & interesting channels to subscribe:

Procastine lots, please, by viewing these amazing videos in almighty you tube creator of the Internet:

The Elements forged in Stars

One of the Sun's Sibling Stars has been found



 The sun gets hotter 10 degrees every few hundreds billions years


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